Topic Name Description
Law (Torah, Pentateuch) Folder Genesis

Genesis is the book of beginnings of all things created by the LORD GOD. It records the beginning of creation, time, life, sin, salvation and mankind, as well as the beginning of the Hebrew nation. It is the foundational book to the rest of the Bible, and it covers more time than any other book in the King James Bible. The Genesis record bears witness to the greatness, everlasting and only LORD GOD and the beginnings of His people. Genesis covers the whole plight of man, who was created in God's image, but because of sin, became destined for the grave. Moses is believed among most of God's people to be the author.

Folder Exodus

This book in the Holy Bible tells the story of God's chosen people's struggles with slavery and the beginning of the Hebrew nation later called Israel. It follows the development of the race from Jacob's twelve sons (Tribes of Israel) to the deliverance from bondage and the beginning of the journey to the promised land by the leading of the glory of the LORD GOD. The testimony of both the Jewish community and the Christian church is that Moses was author of the book that emphasizes God's covenant faithfulness.

Folder Leviticus

A historical narrative of laws to show how Israel became the nation that it did, and what it takes to become a people of the LORD GOD. Leviticus reveals the presence of the LORD GOD in Israelite worship, the attainment of holiness through sanctification, the role of sacrifice, and the establishment of Covenant worship and expected behavior of God's people who are covered under His Sinai Covenant.

Folder Numbers

The experiences of Israel in the Wilderness were compiled by Moses. Numbers stresses the importance of obedience and faith and deals with a census and Israel's years in the wilderness, and midway speaks of another census of the new generation and telling of the months before entrance into Canaan. The character of God, the land given to Israel by Him, and declaration that Israel is His people are focused in the book of Numbers.

Folder Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy is a significant book which is often quoted in the New Testament with 195 citations. It establishes many concepts that have influenced religious thought and life of ancient Israel, Jews and Christians down through the ages. Moses is generally considered the original author, with the final chapters completed by a theocratic officer, possibly Joshua, who recorded both the death and the song of Moses.

The greatest commandment to Jesus and Christians, and the creed of Israel, known as the Shema, are recorded in Deut. 6:4,5. The words are upon the hearts of all of God's people, who are instructed to teach them diligently to their children, and Jesus names this commandment as the first and the greatest in Matthew 22:37.

Another major thought contained within this chapter concerns the covenant relationship between the LORD GOD and His chosen and called people, and the obligation they had to obey His commandments. Both the rewards for obedience and the punishments for disobedience are clearly laid out to His people.

The substance of the three addresses of Moses to God's people as they awaited the final instructions to go over and possess the land God had promised to their fathers is recorded. This exciting and momentous occasion is captured in and forms one of the themes in this fifth book of Moses.

File Clean and Unclean Animals
File Documentary Hypothesis

Did Moses or four independent authors and a redactor write the first five books of the Bible (Pentateuch, Torah)?

File Twelve Sons of Jacob
File Adam to Abraham Genealogies
File Offerings to the LORD God

Leviticus 1:1-7:38

File The Tower of Babel - Genesis 11:1-9


Kathy L. McFarland

October 23, 2016

Historical (Old Testament) Folder Joshua

Joshua was Moses' personal aide and military commander. This Book stands at the beginning of the Jewish scriptural collection known as the Former Prophets, and is believed to be mostly written by Joshua himself. The book is considered the first of the Historical Books of the English Bible, because it traces the record of the children of Israel from the shores of the Jordan River to the conquest and division of the land of Canaan. It closes with an account of the aged Joshua's farewell speeches. The events listed span some 40 years, from c. 1407-1367 B.C.

Folder Judges

The Book of Judges covers the men with spiritual discernment, military prowess and administrative abilities that the LORD GOD raised up to guide the fortunes of Israel. These leaders were established from the death of Joshua to the days of Samuel, the last judge. Samuel is traditionally thought to have written this book. The account notes the failure of the children of Israel to maintain the high spiritual standards laid down by Moses and Joshua in their failure to conquer the land of Canaan as God had challenged them to do, to their growing disobedience and spiritual apostasy brought on by wicked immorality. God would teach His people through this period that "rest" was fully available, and provided for by Himself, but must be entered into by an obedient people.

Folder Ruth

Ruth provides an important link in the unfolding messianic genealogy. It emphasizes the sovereign activity of the LORD GOD's provisions in the affairs of His People. Ruth shows that the LORD GOD's promise to the seed of Abraham carries on through the troubled time of the judges, as well as moving events toward the salvation of Gentiles. Historically, this book provides information to the customs that surrounded the time period of Judges. It also provides a great role modeling for Christian women, and gives instruction in practical living. The author of this book is not known, although Samuel is one of the most prominent that is suggested as author.

Folder 1 Samuel

The books of Samuel were originally one book in the Hebrew Canon until it was divided into by the translators of the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint, who viewed Samuel and Kings together as the "Books of the Kingdoms." The author of the two books is unknown, but according to Jewish tradition, Samuel, the priest, prophet and the last judge of Israel, wrote the first portion of the book, with support from the prophets Nathan and Gad. Samuel tells of Israel's cry for a king, the resutant selection of Saul as it's first king, the failure of Saul and the growing contest between Saul and David. The period covers nearly a century of Israelite history, but it is much more than historically important. The central theme of the books centers on the appointment of a righteous king, David, which leads to the King of Kings, Israel's Messiah and the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ coming.

Folder 2 Samuel

First and 2 Samuel were originally one book in the Hebrew Canon, but were divided by the translators of the Septuagint. Originally, 2 Samuel was called 2 Kings, as it is in the Latin Vulgate. The book now bears the name of the first principal character to appear in 1 Samuel. The content of 2 Samuel deals with the life and reign of King David and could have been entitled the Book of David. Second Samuel serves as a transition from the reign of Saul to the reign of David, as it picks up the narration where 1 Samuel left off. The Davidic covenant is clearly set forth, and includes God's promise to perpetuate the line of David until the coming of the Messiah, as it bears record of God's providential protection of the dynasty and His covenant people, Israel.

Folder 1 Kings

The identity of the author of Kings is unknown, although Jewish tradition holds that its author was Jeremiah. The books of Kings were originally contained within one volume of Hebrew text. The two books contain an account of Israel's kings, priests and prophets, and the spiritual activities of God's covenant people, with the historical accuracy confirmed repeatedly. The books of Kings should not be read for just it's historical content, but as a focus and record of God's reward for obedience and faithfulness, and His Judgment of disobedience, as His people vacillated between His Will and their natures.

Folder 2 Kings

The author of 2 King is unknown, but Jewish tradition supports Jeremiah. The books of Kings were orignally contained within one book of Hebrew text, and was part of a two-volume collection with the books of Samuel. Therefore, 2 Kings is actually the fourth book in the series on the history of the Hebrew Kings as presently arranged. The accountings serves as the final account of the demise of the divided kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and correlates historical facts with theological truths. The providential care of the LORD GOD for his people, as He acts in the affairs of men and nations is recorded here for all to witness the true and living Will and Works of Him.

Folder 1 Chronicles

The author of 1 Chronicles is unknown, but Jewish tradition assigns the authorship to Ezra. The books of Chronicles were originally one book in the Hebrew text. They became separated into two books by the translators of the Greek version of the Old Testament. These translators gave the books a title meaning "Things Left Behind" - that is, details not included in Samuel and Kings. The Hebrew title, "Daily Matters," like the English title "Chronicles", reveals the most important daily affairs in the lives of Israel's kings. The theme of Chronicles records how Judah and the people of God responded to the standards revealed by the LORD GOD, and places special focus on the covenant with David.

Folder 2 Chronicles

The Book of 2 Chronicles was originally one book with 1 Chronicles in the Hebrew text. The one "Things Left Behind" text was divided by translators of the Septuagint. The book of Chronicles was written by the priests of Israel (often attributed specifically to Ezra in Jewish Tradition), and places focus on the religious institutions of Israel - the temple, priesthood, offerings and feasts. The individual reigns of the descendants of David are covered, from Solomon until the fall of Jerusalem under Zedekiah.

Folder Ezra

Ezra, had a royal commission that authorized him to "inquire concerning Judah and Jerusalem, according to the law of thy God" (v. 14). As a result, he and Nehemiah focused Israel's new identity on the LORD GOD's law brought forward from Moses. Israel was forced to focus on the form and content of religious life and practice, as the Babylon exiles returned as faithful Israelites, and reestablished their temple worship.

There were three groups of returns from Babylon to Judah. The first led to the rebuilding of the Temple of the LORD, the second was under Ezra, and was focused on reformation and returning to their covenant obligations, and the third was led by Nehemiah. The identity of the author of this book cannot be established with certainty, however, Jewish tradition names Ezra as the original author, with Nehemiah completing his work. Most modern scholars agree with this attribute to Ezra, "the chronicler".

Folder Nehemiah

Nehemiah was in the high position of cupbearer to the king when he learned that Jerusalem was in great affliction and reproach. He was successful in having himself appointed as governor in Judah with authority and resources to rebuild the city walls. He was a man of skill and daring, as he surveyed the walls at night to avoid detection, then assembled labor forces and supervised the building process. After the wall was completed, he took measures to increase the population of Jerusalem and to correct social, economic and religious abuses. Nehemiah was a wise and courageous man with deep piety and strong convictions, with an invincible determination to complete the tasks for which the LORD GOD had called him to do. The book of Nehemiah is believed to be authored by him, and most probably taken from a personal diary that he kept.

Folder Esther

The Book of Esther is about the marriage of its Jewish heroine with a Gentile King. The account is set in Shushan, the winter capital of Persia, not Israel. The book never mentions the word God or His Name, however, His sovereignty and providence are evident throughout. The origins of the Feast of Purim (2 Maccabees 15:36) when Jews celebrate the deliverance from Haman are revealed in this account. Many ancient commentators attribute the author of the book as Mordecai. Some have even suggested that Ezra or Nehemiah wrote the account, however there is no evidence to support this. Most scholars generally agree that the author is anonymous.

Poetry Folder Job

The Book of Job is named from its central character. The author is uncertain. The date of composition is widely disputed. The purpose of the Book of Job shows the inadequacy of human reason to account for the suffering of the innocent. There is a mystery of divine freedom which does not contradict God's goodness or sovereignty but remains elusive to man, and resigns to an attitude of trust and dependence on a good God whose working man cannot fathom.

Folder Psalms

The meaning of the title Psalms from the Septuagint is "Sacred Songs Sung to Musical Accompaniment"; from the Hebrew title comes "praises. Moses is the Author of Psalm 90, Asaph is the author of Psalms 50, 73-83, Solomon is the author of Psalms 72, 127, Heman is the author of Psalm 88, Ethan is the author of Psalm 89, and David is the author of 73 psalms in total. In addition, 12 psalms are assigned to "The Sons of Korah". The Book of Psalms is a record of petitions, lamentations, thanksgiving and praise to God by His people. It has brought comfort, encouragement and blessing to God's people throughout the ages. The purpose of the psalms was well expressed by David when he appointed Levites to institute hymns in Israel to record, thank and praise the LORD GOD of Israel.

Page Should Christians Pray the Imprecatory Psalms?

By Kathy L. McFarland

December 8, 2011

Folder Proverbs

The basic meaning of the Hebrew word for proverb is "comparison". "Proverb" is often used to refer to an aphorism, or concise statement of a principal or to a discourse. Wisdom is the key word of the book, and offers advice to increase the skill in living, moral discipline for one's life, and distinguishing between true and false, good and bad, what matters most and what does not matter at all. Most of the book was authored by Solomon. The purpose of the book is clearly to show the reader how to live life wisely and skillfully, and the entire structure of the book is arranged to carry out this purpose to lead us to an abundant and successful life.

Folder Ecclesiastes

Solomon is the speaker in Ecclesiastes, but there is no author identified with it's text. The thought of the book is centered on six key ideas. Three of these are negative and revolve around the problems of life: (1) All is vanity. (2) Man is limited. (3) God is hidden. The other three are positive and give the solution to life's crisis: (1) Fear God and keep His commandments. (2)Enjoy life. (3) Use wisdom properly. Taken together, Ecclesiastes is a book to show men that they should lead godly and joyous lives, even if they live in a world of divine mysteries.

Folder Song of Solomon

Solomon authored this song, and many interpretations later, the six most popular are...(1) Allegorical - Denies literal meaning, with Solomon representing the Lord, and the maden representing Israel (early Jewish literature) (2) Typological - A type of Christ and the church based on the literal courtship and marriage (early church) (3) Anthology of love songs - Nothing more than a collection of love songs, not necessarily related to each other (4) Three-character interpretation - An example of the "eternal triangle" with Solomon as the villain who tries to unsuccessfully woo the maiden away from her local shepherd-boyfriend (some fine scholars) (5) Literal love story - A poetic description of an actual love relationship between Solomon and the Shulamite maiden.

The book is a love song sung by the two lovers: the shepherd-king and the Shulamite maiden. Solomon appears first as a young shepherd who falls in love with the outcast Shulamite girl. Her promises to come again one day to marry her, and in his absence, she dreams about their reunion. When he returns, to her surprise he appears as King Solomon himself. Accompanied by his entire entourage, he takes her back to Jerusalem in his royal coach to become his bride. (6) The story serves as a beautiful picture of Christ's love for His outcast Gentile Bride, the church, for whom He promises one day to return.

Major Prophets Folder Isaiah

Isaiah was one of the most prominent citizens of Jerusalem, having access to both the royal and priestly leadership of the nation of Judah. His long life spanned the rule of several kings. Born during the reign of Uzziah, Isaiah was called to his prophetic ministry in the year of the king's death (740 B.C.). Uzziah was succeeded by Jotham (752-736 B.C.). He was followed by Ahaz (736-720 B.C. and finally by Hezekiah (729-699 B.C.).

With the accession of Hezekiah to the throne, a new day dawned for Judah. Pursuing a policy of reforms, the new king repaired and cleansed the temple and returned to emphasizing the Mosaic Law in determining national ethics. Isaiah became a prime figure during these years as chief advisor to King Hezekiah, as he continued to communicate his faithful and true prophesy spoken on behalf of the LORD GOD.

Page Isaiah 6:1-13 Exegesis


Kathy L. McFarland


Folder Jeremiah

Jeremiah was the chief author of the book that bears his name. He was the son of Hilkiah, a priest in the line of Abiathar, who lived at Anathoth. Because he was raised in a Levitical tribe, Jeremiah learned a high regard for the law of the Lord and the importance of the temple and priesthood.

Jeremiah prophesied during the reigns of Judah's last kings. His prophetic ministry was during the days of Josiah (640-609 B.C.) until Jerusalem's fall in the reign of Zedekiah (598-586 B.C.). The prophet of the LORD GOD was a deeply spiritual man, and was completely dedicated to Him. In spite of his timid nature, he was able to overcome his shyness by his fervent love for God. Although Jeremiah's message was one of inevitable judgment upon Judah, he also delivered news of great consolation. He spoke of God dealing again with a repentant people in a new covenant through which the promised blessings would be realized. His prophecy extended deeply into times to come, when the great final gathering of God's people to Himself for the Messiah's everlasting reign.

Folder Lamentations

Jeremiah is the author of the Book of Lamentations according to both Jewish and Christian traditions. It was composed after Jeremiah personally witnessed Judah's downfall and the capture of Jerusalem. He records his great sorrow over the tragedy that befell his country and city, and over the people's sin that invoked the LORD GOD's severe judgment. Jeremiah urges repentance and encourages his people to rely on the sure mercies of God.

Lamentations consists of five poems. Each of the first four is composed as an acrostic of the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. This familiar poetic device indicates that the author is covering his material thoroughly, in a way easy for his audience to understand and remember. The Jewish people read Lamentations every year on the date commememorating the destruction of the LORD GOD's temple in Jerusalem.

Folder Ezekiel

Ezekiel, the priest, and the son of Buzi is the author of this book. He was taken captive in 597 B.C. among the 10,000 deported by Nebuchadnezzar during his second campaign against Judah. As one of three priest-prophets in the Old Testament (including Jeremiah and Zechariah), Ezekiel emphasized the concerns of the priest: the glory of the Lord, priestly duties, and both the present and future temples.

All of Ezekiel's ministry, except for visionary glimpses of life in Jerusalem, took place in Babylon. Since he prophesied both before and after the destruction of Jerusalem during Nebucahnezzar's third campaign (586 B.C.), his early prophecies emphasize the impending disaster; his later prophecies stress Israel's future restoration, especially their glorious new temple.

Folder Daniel

The Book of Daniel was written during the lifetime of the prophet in the sixth century B.C., while the Kings Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar and Cyrus ruled Babylon. It presents a divine philosophy of history and the LORD God is represented as the Sovereign over it all. Daniel provides a prophetic framework for the "the time of the Gentiles" and is a major work of prophesy that is needed to fully understand the Book of Revelation. The "seventieth week" in Dan. 9:27 is prophesy that most evangelical and fundamental Christians are watching for expectantly, to reveal the near completion of the prophesied things that will lead to Christ's second coming.

Minor Prophets Folder Hosea

In a national call to repentance, Hosea's prophecy gave Israel an example of its spiritual idolatry, yet portrayed God's love for Israel in spite of her spiritual infidelity. He prophecied in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel, and his ministry extended from about 770 to 725 B.C. Hosea, a weeping prophet, was a citizen of the northern kingdom like his counterpart Jeremiah to the south. Hosea's prophesy is characterized by intense emotion as the prophet's personal tragedy is transferred and applied to the nation. Because of the tragic details of his personal life, Hosea has been known as the brokenhearted prophet. His sorrow provides a good illustration of the brokenhearted Lord in His relationship with sinful mankind.

Folder Joel

Joel, the son of Pethuel, was one of the earliest prophets of Judah, the southern kingdom. He was a contemporary of both Hosea and Amos, ministers of the northern kingdom. His frequent calls to blow trumpet in Zion, to consecrate a fast, to proclaim a solemn assembly, and to gather the people together to come before the Lord lend credence to the view that the prophecy was issued from the temple court. Two great events are compared in the course of Joel's prophecy: (1) the locust plague upon Judah in the days of the prophet, and (2) the far greater coming day of the Lord. The latter is patterned in the figure of the former.

Folder Amos

Amos pronounces judgment on Israel's enemies, before delivering the main burden of judgment against Israel herself. His courageous and unusually stern prophesy was issued primarily at Bethel, the seat of idolatry in the northern kingdom. He attacks Satan's stronghold, Bethel, and when he is opposed by the idolatrous priest, Amaziah, becomes even bolder in his preaching. Amos was God's messenger to call the nation Israel to become responsible and accountable to the national sins she had committed against God.

Folder Obadiah

Obadiah's prophecy was written in Hebrew poetry, and delivered with intense emotion. The authorship and the date of prophecy are unknown. The purpose for the prophesy of Obadiah is to pronounce God's judgment on Edom (Esau) because of his actions toward his brother Judah (Jacob). This prounouncement leads to the eventual doom when Jesus Christ executes judgment of God on Edom and her allies.

Folder Jonah

Jonah was a prophet whose message was fulfilled during the reign of Jeroboam II, who reigned from 793 to 752 B.C. The prophecy was given when Assyria was becoming a great world power and imminent threat to Israel. The purpose of Jonah's prophecy is to show the sovereignty of God at work in the life of an individual, and his concern for a heathen nation. Jonah's struggles and mistakes made in carrying the message to an unbelieving people, exemplifies the commitment necessary to truly walk the walk of Christ as a person belonging to the LORD GOD as He leads His Words and Way to be spread where He Wills.

Folder Micah

Micah's prophesy dates according to the southern kings Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah. These kings of Judah reigned from about 752 to 697 B.C. One of the most wicked kings of all Judah's history, King Ahaz, is the focus of much of Micah's prophesy. While the dark picture presented by Micah's prophecy reflects the reign of King Ahaz, the brighter aspects reflect the godly rule under King Hezekiah.

One of Micah's most important prophecies concerns the preexistence and human birth of the Messiah at Bethlehem, and affords a demonstration of the accuracy and certainty of the fulfillment of prophecy through God's Will. The purpose of Micah's prophecy is to face the people with their sins and the word of God's judgment that must come upon them as a result of their persistent sinning, and to speak of the future restoration after the Babylonian captivity as well as ultimately, the restoration at the Millennium.

Folder Nahum

The prophecy of Nahum the Elkoshite is dominated by a single idea, the doom of Nineveh. He delivers a message of judgment and destruction against Nineveh and gives comfort to Judah to know that Assyria is doomed and constitutes a threat no longer. The prophet's name means "Consolation" which gives an indication of the purpose of the poetic prophecy. Nahum's mission was to comfort the kingdom of Judah following the destruction of Israel by Assyria, by announcing God's coming judgment on Nineveh, the capital of Assyria.

Nahum was born in Galilee, but during Israel's defection moved to Judah and in Jerusalem took up his ministry in behalf of Judah against Nineveh.

Folder Habakkuk

The prophecy of Habakkuk is unique among all prophetic literature for the Hebrew poetry contained within. The first two chapters contain a dialogue between the prophet and the LORD God concerning the invasion of the Chaldeans and their destruction. Chapter 3 is a psalm with instructions given to the musicians for its rendering. In the first two chapters the prophet contends with the LORD GOD, and in the third chapter, he submits to Him.

Most commentators date Habakkuk's prophecy during the reign of King Jehoiakim. Nothing is known about the author Habakkuk. Because he is known to us only by name indicates the relative unimportance of the prophet, and the major importance of the prophecy. The theme of prophecy is judgment on Judah and Chaldea (Babylon).

Folder Zephaniah

The prophecy of Zephaniah was used in the providence of God to prepare Judah for the reforms and revival under King Josiah. Through the prophecy the nation of the prophet's day was faced with it's sin, reminded of coming judgment, and instructed concerning the ultimate glory that will one day come to Israel. Zephaniah sets what forth the day of the Lord will mean to ungodly Judah, to the world powers and to the godly remnant. His theme is the day of the Lord, which will destroy the false remnant of Baal, destroy the God-rejecting nations and purify the true remnant belonging to Him.

Folder Haggai

Haggai was the first prophet to speak the Word of God to Israel after they returned from Babylonian captivity. His message to the returning Israelites encouraged both the spiritual and moral reconstruction of Solomon's Temple, which had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C. The Book of Haggai is part of "The Restoration Period" (536-420 B.C.) that is spoken about in detail in the books Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther.

In 536 B.C., Priest Zerubbabel led the remnant Israelites numbering almost fifty thousand back to Jerusalem to begin construction of the new Temple, referred to later as the Temple of Zerubbabel. Building on the same site as the first Temple, work ceased after about ten years of reconstruction because of political pressures and problems. Persian King Darius, the ruling monarch in 521 B.C., was interested in law, which led to him granting permission to the Jews to start the rebuilding project once again.

In 520 B.C., Haggai delivered the words of the LORD to stir the Israelites to start the building the Temple. Haggai spoke to the remnant about their spiritual and religious needs that were centered upon the rebuilding of the LORD God's House. His ministry, lasting for just four short months, generated enthusiasm and motivated the Israelites to continue the rebuilding project. The Temple of Zerubbabel was finally completed in the sixth year of Darius' rule in 516 B.C. In the beginning of the rebuild, as the less spacious and less magnificent Temple of Zerubbabel began taking shape before the Israelites eyes, they were perplexed. To re-inspire their effort, Haggai promised them that the LORD God was with their efforts and predicted the future Temple would have more splendor than the former house of the LORD God. His prophecy would later support not only Israel's religious restoration, but proclaim the shadow of Jesus Christ, as he restored believers through the most perfect tabernacle through his being. The identity of "Haggai the Prophet", author of the "Book of Haggai," is uncertain. Nothing is known of his personal history, except for brief mention in Ezra 5:1 and 6:14. Although some suggest that Haggai 2:3 hints that Haggai was one of a group of Israelites that had seen Solomon's Temple in its former glory ("Book of Haggai Introduction", King James Study Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1988. 1356.), there is not enough evidence to support this claim. Although his age or origin in Biblical history is unknown, Haggai's ministry as a prophet was raised perfectly in the specific time and place to move God's people forward, rebuild His Temple, and accomplish His Will.

Folder Zechariah

Zechariah is a messianic prophet with frequent mention of both the first and second advents of Messiah. He dwells completely on the person and work of Christ, and his prophecies contain apocalyptic proclamations as well giving prominence to the Angel of the Lord. The tone of his prophecy is one of encouragement, and focuses the attention of God's people to His Glory.

Folder Malachi

The prophecy of Malachi delivers stern rebukes to the people and priests to call them to repentance, and to promise future blessing. His theme is God's love for Israel in spite of the sins of the priests and the people, and is testimony to the graciousness of the LORD GOD in condescending to answer man's foolish and childish statements.

Apocrypha Folder Tobit

This religious novel with bits of historical elements was probably written about the 2nd century B.C., placed within the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canon by the Council of Carthage in 397, and confimed as canonical by the Council of Trent in 1546.  The Book of Tobias (Vulgate title), resembles Jewish wisdom literature, but, is not considered canonical by ancient Judaism.  The story speaks of an Israelite named Tobit from the Tribe of Naphtali who lived in Nineveh under the rule of Sargon II, after the moving of the northern tribes of Israel to Assyria in 721.

Intercession of angels, filial piety, and the reverential treatment of the dead lead to doctrinal foundations by the Catholic and Orthodox Church; some think the Sadducees' confrontation of the woman that had seven husbands (Mark 12:20-22) is an allusion to this book. Because of its nature to uphold the purity of marriage, it is often read during Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican weddings.

The short version is found in the Codex Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, Venetus, and most cursive manuscripts, while the longer (1700 words) is found in Codex Sinaiticus and compares closely to the Dead Sea manuscript scroll fragments found in Qumran, Cave IV, in 1952.

File Apocrypha

Books excluded from the Protestant Bible

Gospel of Jesus Christ Folder Matthew

Matthew is one of four Gospels that records the life of Jesus Christ. His emphasis on the Old Testament preparation for the Gospel makes it an ideal "bridge" from the Old to the New Testament. Matthew, the Hebrew tax collector, writes for the Hebrew mind. He presents a portrait of Jesus with his own characteristic focus, that gives comparison to the other three books, Mark, Luke and John, that form the Gospel of the Word of God. Although the book of Matthew is anonymous, most Faithful and tradition believe that Matthew, the disciple of Jesus, is the author. Matthew presents the Good News of our Redeemer and Savior, as well as the arrival of the Messiah of Israel, the Son of God and the Savior of the world. It was written so readers would come to believe in Jesus Christ and receive eternal life according to the perfect plan of the Will and Grace of the LORD GOD.

Folder Mark

Mark was the traveling companion of both Paul and Peter, and wrote this Gospel from the Roman perspective. He was a seasoned veteran of the Christian walk, well versed in apostolic teaching, and had extensive missionary experience under wise guides. He was the cousin of Barnabas (Col 4:10) and participated in early stages of Paul's first missionary journey. For some reason he did not finish the journey, but went back to Jerusalem (Acts 13:13). Later on, Paul would not have Mark on his mission team because of this desertion (Acts 15:38). Yet in later years he and Paul were reconciled (Col 4:10; Philem 24). Paul regarded him as one of the few who were faithful to his ministry to the end (2 Tim 4:11). There is good evidence that this gospel reflects Peter's contributions, and that they had close ties (1 Pet 5:13). Tradition holds that Mark wrote primarily for a largely Gentile audience resident in Rome, as he seeks to encourage them to follow and keep following Jesus Christ.

Folder Luke

Luke was Paul's physician and one of his missionaries and the author of one of the four Gospels contained within the Word of God. He writes with the Greek mentality in his view points. His writings are distinct and specific in the recording of events, and he is thought of by many as a true historian of his time. Although he was not an eyewitness to the gospel events, he had access to both the actual eyewitnesses and the writings concerning the things of Jesus Christ. He expertly recorded and preserved the facts of Christ, as he laid the factual ground and gave meaning to these events. Luke stresses the perfect plan of the LORD GOD and the connection between Israel, Christ and the church. He puts special emphasis on the salvation of the faithful, and he gives special attention to women, children, the poor and the disreputable. He stresses the Holy Spirit, both in the life of Jesus and the early church. In his exact and commanding way, Luke covers the suffering and death of Jesus Christ in detailed writings, and presents God's saving Will and Works to the "Gentiles" and "Greeks" of the world.

Folder John

John, the son of Zebedee, and one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ is thought to have been the author of this book. His gospel is different by nature from the other three. It is an interpretation of the facts of Jesus' life rather than a presentation of its facts in historical sequence. His purpose in writing is unique, as is his interpretation of the life of Jesus. He emphasizes the deity of Jesus, as well as focuses on the words "signs" (miracles), "believe", and "life". John's gospel is evangelistic and written so others might believe. He also writes for the believers that they may be sanctified, as he speaks of the promise of the Holy Spirit, the truth that Jesus is the True Vine, and Simon Peter's denial and restoration. Most think this was the last gospel to be written, perhaps while the "beloved disciple" of Jesus Christ was at Ephesus about A.D. 85.

Page A defensible variant interpretation of the Samaritan woman and the meeting of the Messiah at the well

Jesus and the Samaritan woman (John 4:3-30)


Kathy L. McFarland


File Appearances of the Resurrected Lord Jesus Christ

Scripture reference to the Risen Christ's activities before His last Ascension as recorded in the Word of God.

File Twelve Disciples of Jesus Christ

The original twelve chosen Apostles of Christ ordered by the squads they served

History (New Testament) Folder Acts

The Acts of the Apostles in the King James Bible presents an extensive view of early church life and history. It's focus is primarily on the acts of two apostles, Peter and Paul. It's purpose is to show the continuation of works through the teachings of Jesus and the Holy Spirit in the establishment of the church. The author is the same as the author of Luke, with the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts forming a single, two-volume work. Luke wrote to convince Theophilus, probably a Gentile official, of the certainty of the Things of Jesus Christ that had been told to him. He also wrote to provide a unity between Christ's works in the Gospels and the apostles' labors after His ascension. And finally, Luke wrote to show the Roman world that Christianity is not a subversive political movement. Few biblical books are as misused as the Book of Acts, and some denominations have created distinctive and divisive teachings from their interpretations.

Epistles Folder Romans

Romans has been called "The Constitution of Christianity," "The Christian Manifesto," and "The Cathedral of the Christian Faith." It is known as the most complete compendium of Christian doctrine. The Epistle of Romans was written by Paul during his third missionary journey to Corinth. Paul was intending on making a fourth missionary journey to the western extremity of the Roman Empire. He wanted the Roman church to assist him with making that journey and wrote this epistle to establish contact with the Roman church in preparation for the anticipated visit. The church at Rome was primarily made up of Gentiles and had very little central organization or local church government. Small groups of believers met all over the city, and this is the reason that Paul addressed his epistle to the "saints" rather than to the "church".

Folder 1 Corinthians

The City of Corinth was a thriving metropolis filled with a pluralistic society and many cult religions. It also had a synagogue and a large contingency of Jews. The city's moral depravity was legendary, and it was filed with every sin and immorality imaginable. In the midst of this cesspool, Christians assembled together in their faith and practice of following Jesus Christ. Unfortunately, these assembled Christians became divided over misconceptions regarding the nature of the body of Christ, the message of the gospel, and the nature of the ministry. Paul responded to their questioning letters and reports of dissent by writing the assembled at Corinth to put a stop to the division, and to instruct, correct, rebuke and edify where it was needed. Throughout 1 Corinthians, Paul speaks on the need for discipline and submission to the authority of Christ, as he uses words such as knowledge, wisdom, discern, love, holy and sanctify often in his epistle.

Folder 2 Corinthians

Paul's second letter to the Corinths is actually the fourth letter that he wrote to them, and is known for it's intensely personal and autobiographical nature. He wrote this epistle to the assembly that was established on his first visit to the city. Problems with worldliness, internal wranglings and doctrinal defections continued to fester in spite of his efforts in the first epistle. Opposition to Paul's ministry leveled charges of fickleness, authoritarianism, ministering without proper credentials, cowardice, failure to maintain proper clerical dignity, presumption and fleshliness against him. Paul focused on his accusers corruption of the Word, their deceptiveness, their own ministry, and their lack of spiritual courage to step out and start a ministry. In the light of these problems, Paul wrote 2 Corinthians to justify and establish his authority as an apostle, and to bring about their full reconciliation with himself.

Folder Galatians

Paul had led the Galatians to Christ. They had made a good start in the Christian life and were doing well spiritually. Later, some Jewish teachers (called Judaizers) taught the Galatians that to be saved one must not only believe in Christ, but must also obey the Mosaic Law, the sign of which is circumcision. In preaching this heresy, they also attacked Paul's apostleship and gospel. Their false teachings begin to hinder the Galatian's obedience to the LORD GOD, and they were starting to observe some parts of the law, as well as considering a complete acceptance of the law.

Paul writes his epistle to expose the error of the Judaizers' gospel and their impure motives. His ultimate goal is to prevent the readers from embracing a false gospel and to encourage them to retain their spiritual freedom in Christ. Paul's focus is the justification by God's grace through faith, the true message of salvation received directly from Jesus Christ.

Folder Ephesians

Epaphras, a leader in the Colossian church, visited Paul while a prisoner at Rome to seek his apostolic help in dealing with the Colossian heresy. In response, Paul wrote the Colossians in opposition to their doctrinal error. Part of the defence of his position pictured Christ as head of the universe and of the church. After completing Colossians, Paul, with this idea of Christ's headship still fresh in mind, wrote Ephesians to spell out the logical outcome of this doctrine: if Christ is the church's Head, then Christians are members of His body; that is, believers enjoy an intimate relationship with Him, and thus have a unique relation with one another. Paul seeks to present the church as members of Jesus' body, possessing the closest possible relationship with Him and each other. Paul also stresses that both the Jewish and Gentile Christians share the same intimacy in God's family, and stand before Him on the same common ground of grace. These two doctrines join to make the theme of Ephesians that Jewish and Gentile believers are "one new man".

Folder Philippians

Paul planted the church in Philippi about A.D. 50, on his second missionary journey. Their love for Paul was reciprocated often in full measure, and they were considered by him to be his beloved brethren. The Philippian assembly was in good spiritual health, and their only flaw is a lack of complete harmony among some of their members. Hence, Paul often summons them to unite and cautions them of the potential danger of their enemies.

Paul wrote this epistle to offer sincere thanks to his beloved converts for their gifts and support to him when he was in prison in Rome, and to relieve some of their anxiety when Epaphroditus (one of their own congregation) fell deathly ill as he was ministering to Paul. The resulting distress among the congregation at word of Epaphroditus' illness, created an added burden for Paul. As a result, Paul writes this epistle thanking them for their gifts, and sends Epaphroditus home prematurely in order that all three parties may be relieved of unnecessary anxiety for each other. Epaphroditus arrived back in Philippi with Paul's letter of thanks in hand, and the congregation at Philippi had both their beloved brother and a letter from Paul, encouraging them to be joyful in their spirits.

Folder Colossians

The Colossian Christians had been led to Christ by Epaphras. The majority were Gentiles who were progressing in their new faith. Paul rejoiced over their good spiritual condition, but the Colossian church was being exposed to a local heresy that threatened to deprive them of their spiritual blessings. Epaphras either visited Paul in Rome, or was imprisoned there with him. He informed Paul of the dangerous theological error circulating in the churches of Colossae and Laodicea. In response to Epaphras's plea for help, Paul writes this epistle to the Colossians, which is also to be read at the church at Laodicea, in an attempt to check the heresy's influence, to demonstrate the pre-eminence of Christ, and to confirm the addresses in the Christian faith.

Folder 1 Thessalonians

Paul, along with Silas and Timothy, founded the church at Thessalonica on his second missionary journey. The Apostle had been drawn to this important Roman port after seeing a vision in which a Macedonian man was calling for help (Acts 16:9). While Paul was in Corinth, Silas and Timothy brought good and bad news about the Macedonian church. Though the church continued to be established, the Thessalonians were also reportedly having difficulties. Gentiles, and especially Jews, were impugning Paul's sincerity, defaming him as a wandering charlatan who had deceived them. The church was also confused about the second coming of Christ. Some members worried about believers who had died before His return. Others considered it unnecessary to continue working, since Christ would return at any time. Still others were sinking back into the immorality of the culture. There was also a crisis in the leadership; many of the rank-and-file apparently were being offended by certain tactless elders. These and other minor difficulties occasioned Paul's first letter to the Thessalonians, which was written from Athens.

Folder 2 Thessalonians

Paul's second letter to the Thessalonians is a follow-up to the first. While he was encouraged by their faith and steadfastness, he could see that many in the assembly were still very confused about the second coming of Christ. This misunderstanding had led many in the church to forsake their occupations, to lead undisciplined lives, and to breed unrest among the people by becoming busybodies and beggars, living off those who still maintained gainful employment. Still others had become discouraged, thinking the day of the Lord had already begun and that they had somehow missed it. They had expected Christ to destroy their enemies, yet they were still suffering persecution. Paul explains that while the time of the Lord's coming cannot be predicted, it will be a spectacular event that no one could miss. Paul encouraged them to take heart in the fact that from very beginning, the LORD GOD's purpose was to include them in the glorious events of Christ's coming, and he instructed those who wanted to eat, to get to work.

Folder 1 Timothy

This is the first of Paul's letters to Timothy, a young Pastor who was responsible for overseeing the work of the Ephesian church and possibly the other churches of the province of Asia. Paul cautions Timothy to guard against false doctrine, protect public worship and develop mature leadership. Much of the letter deals with pastoral conduct and lays the foundation for ordaining elders in the local church. Paul's first epistle to Timothy is like a leadership manual for church organization and administration, with both spiritual and natural life issues forming the theme of proper conduct in the church of the living LORD God.

Folder 2 Timothy

Paul wrote this letter to Timothy while he was imprisoned in a Roman dungeon cell at the Mamertine Prison, a place from which he knew he would never be set free. His only contact with the outside world was a hole, about 18 inches square, in the ceiling of his cell. Through that opening passed everything that came to and from the apostle, including his second letter to Timothy in A.D. 67. He was beheaded in Rome in May or June of A.D. 68.

In 2 Timothy we have the last known words to be written by Paul, and it was written with purpose and commitment to his dear Timothy. He exhorted Timothy in his ministry at Ephesus, warned him of the trouble both inside and outside the church, requested that he come to Rome to visit him in prison, and provided instruction to all of the churches in Timothy's territory. His focus was encouraging his beloved Timothy to continue in the good works of the LORD GOD in faith and perseverance as his own last days on this earth were drawing near.

Folder Titus

Titus was one of the circle of young men who were the many "witnesses"who the apostle Paul committed the things given to him to pass them on to to others. Together with Timothy, Titus traveled with Paul.Titus was a Gentile, while Timothy was half Jewish and half Gentile. The authorship of this epistle was written by Paul.

Folder Philemon

Philemon is one of the four epistles (along with Ephesians, Philippians and Colossians, which Paul wrote during his first Roman imprisonment. Onesimus, Philemon and Paul are the three main characters in his epistle. Onesimus, a slave in Colossae, had robbed Philemon, his master, and then ran away. During the course of his flight, Onesimus encountered Paul in Rome, and through his ministry came to faith in Christ. Subsequently, Onesimus became a helper to Paul. Paul recognized Onesimus's duty to his master, so sent him back to Philemon, along with Tychicus, who carried Paul's letter to the Colossian church at the same time. In this letter, Paul implores Philemon to receive Onesimus not as a slave, but as "a brother beloved".

Folder Hebrews

Only the LORD GOD knows with certainty who wrote the Epistle to the Hebrews. The strongest argument for authorship goes to Paul, while other worthy suggestions include Luke, Barnabas, Silas, and Appolos. The focus of the message that encourages the high priestly ministry of Christ in behalf of believers cannot be missed. Throughout the epistle the author stresses the continuity and flow between the Old Testament revelation and the new faith in Christ, while emphasizing the superiority of both Christ and His New Covenant. By so doing, he assures the Jewish Christians of the biblical heritage contained in the New Covenant, with 29 direct quotations from and 53 clear allusions to the Old Testament. He challenges them to run with endurance the race that is set before them, and offers encouragement, comfort and warning, as it leads the reader from superficial thinking to profound depths concerning the person and work of Christ.

Folder James

James, probably the half brother of Jesus Christ, writes a specific message of Christian accountability, which carries over so completely into this Epistle of James. He talks about the faith of a believer when faced with tribulations, trials and temptations. He speaks of the proper response to the Word of God in faith. He brings faith to a place for all people through impartiality, and encourages the active faith in doing the works of teaching. He encourages the faithful to work against worldliness and natural desires, and warns of their dangers. A pillar of Christianity, his focus is not merely on faith and works, but stresses the need for a faith that works.

Folder 1 Peter

The unknown author of this Epistle writes to the persecuted Christians. Many believe Peter the Rock and disciple of Jesus Christ wrote this letter because the words sound like his character. Others believe that a Galiean fisherman, whose native tongue was Aramaic, would be unable to accomplish the literary style used, and suggest Sylvanus or some unknown Roman teacher as helping Peter write his words. What can be certain, however, is the consistency and upholding of the words being writen and spoken by Paul are in agreement with 1 Peter, and reflect that the One they both serve is the same Lord, as they were both inspired by the same Holy Spirit to uphold the persecuted Christians in their walks with Jesus Christ.

Folder 2 Peter

Peter, disciple and rock of Jesus Christ, wrote this second epistle shortly before his martyrdom. Many who challenge him as an author to 1 Peter epistle, have no problem with crediting him with writing 2 Peter. In the second letter, Peter is writing to the same readers he addressed in the first. He encouraged them to be continually involved in the growth cycle of Christianity and reminded them of their salvation. He focused extensively on warning them about false prophets and teachers. He reminded them of the hope of the Lord Jesus Christ's coming, as well as cautioned them about the scoffers and false teachers that will surround them as they watch for Him. He encouraged them to demonstrate the certainty of their calling and their election, be fruitful in their Christian lives, gain an abundant entrance into the Kingdom of Heaven and know of the ultimate destruction of the present heavens and earth, as recorded in the infallible inspiration of Scripture through prophesy.

Folder 1 John

Evidence points to the author of the three Epistles of John, as John, the son of Zebedee who is the same writer who wrote the gospel bearing his name. John's gospel seeks to bring the reader to faith and 1 John seeks to confirm the reader in that faith. He writes to strengthen the faith of his readers and to fight against the specific threat of gnosticism towards their beliefs. Gnosticism is a deviant form of Christianity that values knowledge as the means of salvation rather than the Cross and asserts that physical matter was evil and proof that the Son of God could not come in the flesh. These aberrant teachings targeted many of John's students, and led him to assure them of salvation, and firmly express their beliefs as compared to the false teachings of the Gnostics.

Folder 2 John

The same person that wrote the first epistle of John, was also the author to the second epistle, and was probably John, the disciple and son of Zebedee. He was writing to the elder elect lady and her children, which some take literally to mean a personal acquaintance, and others believe it to metaphorically represent a particular local church and congregation of members. John intended to visit his readers soon. He was pleased in their spiritual progress, but felt that special words of admonition were necessary to assure continued progress.

Folder 3 John

This brief epistle is attributed to the apostle John, though he does not give his name. He called himself "the elder" which seems to have been John's self-designation in the final years of his ministry. The same stylistic and theological similarities apparent in the fourth gospel, 1 John and 2 John are a distinct feature of 2 John as well. The letter is addressed to Gaius, a common name that can not be identified as a specific person. John commends and exhorts Gaius for his steadfastness and for his care of Christian missionaries, and he uses Diotrephes as an example of how not to live as a Christian. John's words are meant to encourage Gaius until John can see him personally.

Folder Jude

The half brother of Jesus Christ is likely the author of Jude. The writer gives his name and identifies himself as James's brother, and the possibility exists that he can be the brother of one of four James, which creates some uncertainty among scholars. Jude writes to Christians who have been infiltrated by false teachers and people spreading the message that promotes immorality, theological error, destructive pride and divisiveness. Jude encourages his readers to stand firm against the pressure to dilute pure Christian doctrine.

Prophecy (New Testament) Folder Revelation

The English title "Revelation" comes from the first word of the book in Greek. That word is apokalypsis, which means "the unveiling of something previously unrevealed. In Revelation Christ and His eternal program are fully revealed, so that the book provides a fitting capstone to the New Testament revelation. Revelation is prophetic in form. It was written during a time of persecution by John, the author of the Gospel John. The book is filled with visions and the style is generally figurative and symbolic. The book contains many symbols and signs, such as numbers, colors, animals, stones, persons, groups and places. Some symbols are interpreted in the text itself; others have to be interpreted in the light of the Old Testament; and others may have no previous biblical connection. Revelation is commonly referred to by the Christian believers when discussing things such as end times, rapture, tribulation, the mark of the beast and Judgment Day.