Isaiah 6:1-13 Exegesis
Kathy L. McFarland
Isaiah 6 is filled with brilliant imagery, passion, and religious depth that stir the calling of God in the souls of believers, especially in the first eight verses of the chapter. But, the mood quickly changes, as Isaiah 6:9-13 records the Prophet Isaiah’s eighth century declaration of desolation for his homeland, with specific warnings of God’s intent to remove the spiritual awareness of His people. This deadening of spiritual realization becomes critical to first century Jews and Christians as the presence of Christ and His testimony establish the New Covenant of the LORD God with believers. Isaiah 6 clearly warns Judah of the coming desolation and records God's promotion of obduracy, which highlights the relationship between understanding and redemption in the salvation process.
Historical/ Cultural - The Book of Isaiah records the visions of Prophet Isaiah. It contains 66 chapters that bear witness to God’s communication with His disobedient people. These chapters show Israel’s refusal to heed God’s will because of their rebellion, pride, and self-will to establish government on their terms. The prophetic genre is both poetic and narrative in its approach, and meets the basic requirements of prophetic literature that speaks with the Word of God about election and covenant, rebellion and judgment, compassion and redemption, and consummation.
The first six chapters show God’s judgment brought to bear upon Israel and Jerusalem, but then continues to record Israel’s struggles to achieve political control fighting against God’s help that leads to the arrival of Cyrus from Persia to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple. Isaiah 6 is a climax to the troubles of Judah accounted in Isaiah 1-5, and bridges the Lord of hosts to become the Holy One of Israel (10:17, 12:6, 29:19, 30:11). The placement of Chapter 6 shows its dependence upon chapters 1-5 that record accusations against the people’s unwillingness to obey God.
The assumed author of the Book of Isaiah is the Prophet Isaiah, son of Amoz, who lived and worked in Jerusalem from about 750 to 700 B.C.E. All that is known about Isaiah is contained in this one Book of Isaiah; though it is not explicitly stated in Scripture, Isaiah 8:16 suggests Isaiah as the author to “bind up the testimony of God.”
The narrative is easily dated to the eighth century because of the numerous historical references throughout the Book of Isaiah. Isaiah 7-12 is dated to ca.733 based upon the historical date of the Syro-Ephraimite crisis. The broad, introductory Isaiah 1-6 warns against Judah’s wickedness around 745-740 before political danger comes their way. Specifically, Uzziah’s death is dated around 742 by Bright, but it is hard to fix his reign because he shared it as a co-regent with Jotham (2 Chronicles 6:21). Though most scholars from the early church to present day think Chapter 6 of Isaiah to be in the perfect place to bridge 1-5 with 7 forward in a certain chronological order, there is some debate with the placement of Chapter 6; however, the argument seems mostly insignificant for exegesis purposes.
An important consideration in exegesis of Isaiah 6 is to avoid the tendency to break the narrative up into two sections with Isaiah 1-8 that leads to the commission of Isaiah and 9-13 which announces the coming spiritual desolation of God’s people. Exegesis of Isaiah 6 demands both parts to be connected as one unit, because neither exists without the other; Isaiah’s obedience to God and the purging of his sin recorded in Isaiah 6:1-8 is in direct contrast to God’s people’s disobedience to Him, and their plunging to blindness and deafness a direct result of their sinful nature against God. Isaiah 6, interpreted as one unit, is critical to fully develop the things God reveals through the Prophet and the book He penned.
However, it should be noted that a fresh collection of prophecies begins in Isaiah 6, and seems to introduce the group of prophesies contained with Isaiah 7:1-9:7. This group speaks prophecies from Isaiah that is connected with the historical setting of the Syro-Ephraimitic invasion, which culminates in the Messianic identification embodied in Isaiah 9:1-6.
Literary - Isaiah 6:1-13 is a first-person, datable, narrative monologue that connects chapters 1-4 in a bridge with chapters 7-35. It is the second time that Isaiah claims divine authority as he declares the condition of spiritual desolation that will come against the land. Thematically, Isaiah 6:1-4 describes Isaiah’s vision of the LORD God and claims to present specific words from God originating from a face-to-face encounter. Isaiah experiences a sense of unworthiness in 6:5-7 and receipt of God’s commission in 6:8-13 in a structure similar to other Old Testament call stories that contains divine confrontation (6:1-2), introductory word (6:3-7), commission (6:8-10), objection (6:11a) and reassurance (6:11b-13). That the call to Isaiah to minister to the rebellious nation comes in the middle of Isaiah’s book garners debate through its curious lateness; but, when one considers chapter 6 as the beginning of a fresh series of prophecies independent of chapters 1-5, but bridging towards the next set of prophecies, Isaiah’s call to minister to Israel becomes heightened and critical to the thematic development of the book.
It should be noted that some scholars’ claim that verses 6:12-13 were added in the sixth-century and sometimes disregard them because of this supposition. Regardless, the focused content leading to Isaiah’s call cannot be disregarded; the impact of this supernatural contact with the LORD God is evident through the words of Isaiah in chapter 6.
Isaiah 6:1a opens to the announcement that King Uzziah has died. This opening fails to account for how the death of King Uzziah affects Isaiah, but since he was the only king Isaiah had known, as well as the growing sense of doom building from the Assyrian threat by Tiglath-Pileser III’s ascendancy, it might have affected him greatly. Isaiah’s confidence in the king of his youth must have been smashed as Judah’s leader succumbs to shame, stupor, leprosy and finally death; certainly the stability of his homeland without its king was in his worries. It is likely that Isaiah knew of the Prophets Hosea and Amos (2 Chronicles 26) earlier warnings to the economically and militarily successful King Uzziah and his people that their societal sins would bring punishment from God. Without question, at the time of his death, his people are ripe for judgment against their sins by an angry LORD God that had lost His patience.
It is important to note that young Isaiah saw his king rot and succumb to the leprosy of uncleanness, and at his king’s death, he visualizes standing in the midst of God’s realm with supernatural visions that reveal the righteous and holy, holy, holy Lord of hosts sitting upon His throne, lifted high above the degeneration of human depravity that was encroaching the land of Judah (v. 1, 8).
The opening perceptions of Isaiah where he sees the Lord sitting in verse 1 connects strongly to verse 8 where he hears the voice of the Lord. These words that indicate Isaiah’s seeing and hearing the Lord interconnect with the message He is given to by the Lord to deliver to His people in verse 8b: “Hear ye indeed, but understand not; And see ye indeed, but perceive not.” That Isaiah clearly sees and hears the Lord is surety that his heart is not fat, his ears are not heavy, his eyes are not shut as the condition of spiritual blindness and deafness is revealed in verse 10. This spiritual connection of Isaiah to the Lord further assures the reader that he understands God with his heart and is fully converted and healed by Him as revealed through his ability to both see and hear the holy Lord giving further testimony to his duties to God’s people as His Prophet. It is only his lips that are unclean, preventing his words from being spoken in the Lord’s presence; this condition will be addressed further in the Isaiah 6:5 section of this paper.
Isaiah 6:1b - The Lord’s throne is accentuated by Poet/Prophet Isaiah’s descriptive words “high and lifted up” Each of these descriptions differs from another, though both can be represented by either Hebrew word that holds similar meaning. Isaiah purposely describes the place of the Lord with these separate, purposefully chosen Hebrew words רוּם (highly exalted), נָשָׂא (even more highly exalted) to express the separation of the full glorious presence of the Lord rising above those who stood in His presence in this holy place. But, it should also be noted that the spiritually purified Seraphim stood above the throne, reminiscent of the Tabernacle Holy of Holies, where the image of two cherubim angels spread wings that shelters the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, that contained the two stone tablets of law and the filling of a cloud of glory from LORD God’s presence in the midst of the congregation of Israel (1 Kings 8:6-11).
There is a deep contrast in Isaiah 6 from the start as Isaiah stands between a degenerating homeland with a dead king and in the presence of the throne room filled with the glory of the Lord, whose train drops down to His Temple making contact with the human world from the heavenly place. It is not only the differences between Isaiah’s world and the Lord that his words reveal, but, the connection the Lord holds with humanity through the Temple of God that will soon be raised again as Cyrus the builder’s arrival is announced in Isaiah 44:28. Isaiah 6 bridges the fallen state of Judah with the raising of a Temple connecting God’s people to the Lord with His throne in Heaven.
Isaiah 6:2, 3 - The three-fold echoing of God’s “Holy, Holy, Holy” nature by the six-winged, burning Seraphim fly above the majestic, luminous Lord upon His throne and reveals the Omnipresence of God with His glory shining forth as their instantaneous and uncontrollable shout outs of praise to declare His glory. A connection of the Seraphim in Isaiah 6:2, 3 seems likely with similar four beasts with six wings in Revelations 4:8 that speaks “Holy, holy, holy Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come.” Also, John’s supernatural visions recorded in Revelations 4 amplifies the atmosphere surrounding the majestic throne of God, with elaboration of the full spectacle of glory, adding a depth of visualization that is first reported through Isaiah’s supernatural vision. Both accounts support and confirm the other, and give believers insight into the realm that the Lord reigns from.
It seems Isaiah becomes transformed through the words of unending praise from the Seraphim, as if his very spirit is raised high to join them in the praise of His Lord then plunges to the depth of despair when he realizes the condition of his unclean lips (v. 5).
Isaiah 6:4 – Some scholars think that with the post of the doors shaking and smoke filling the house as a result of one of the angels speaking, that the fiery nature of the Seraphim are linked with the theophany of the LORD God revealed in the thunder and lightning in the Old Testament, especially in Psalms 18:8-9 and Baal’s seven thunders and lightnings. Others, especially the secular scholars, make a connection of Isaiah 6:2-4 account of the Seraphim with the Egyptian Uraei (winged sphinxes), symbols of human and divine kingship. This view often leads to the false conclusion that the thunder and lightning recorded in Psalm 24, Habakkuk 3:9, and Isaiah 6 are a personification of a god nature that is paralleled from a Baal mythology in the Ugaritic text.
Biblical exegesis of Isaiah 6 must avoid the typological connection of Psalm 18:9-10 to Isaiah 6; that the LORD God thunders and shakes the foundations of the earth, that smoke comes out of his nostrils, and the fire from his mouth devours in the poetic tome that captures the deliverance of a believer by God does not represent the shaking of the door posts by a Seraphim. The deliverer of the praise to the Lord at his throne in Isaiah 6 is not God, and the result of post shaking and smoke filling the room are not representative of His deliverance, at least in the very literal sense. However, there are several different types of smoke, those in Rev. 8:4 and 15:8 associated with the heavenly altar, Rev. 9 speaks of smoke from the abyss where the locusts demons arise, and smoke as proof of the eternal torment of the prostitute of Babylon and the beast’s followers is in Rev. 14:11, 18:18. The smoke in the purification associated with God’s altar that links to the power and glory of God as captured in Isaiah 6:4 is clearly related to this type described in Rev. 8:4 and 15:8.
There are typological significances in the shaking of the door posts and the house filled with smoke that connect firmly with other Scripture to give us a deeper understanding of this account in Isaiah 6:4. It is a fact confirmed by Scripture that God had the Israelites paint the door posts of their dwelling places with the blood sacrificed from the lamb so on that terrible night when death was given to the firstborn Egyptians, God might see the dwelling place of His people and passover them (Exodus 12:3-14). The teachings of Christ speak of a house built upon a solid foundation which makes connection to the house of a believer built upon the solid foundation of Christ able to endure difficult times (Matthew 7:24-27). The Lord also speaks a parable about sheep entering through the door, His door, to follow their shepherd through (John 10:1-18). Without the need to jump to unsupported conclusions, the posts of a door can be easily connected to symbolize the spiritual entry place of a believer; it is the entrance place that leads to where a believer’s heart, mind, and soul are contained, and it opens with the door of Christ and reveals the actual dwelling place of that believer. When this is combined with the purifying smoke associated with the heavenly throne room in Isaiah 6, an easy connection to the purifying smoke emitting from the fire-sacrificed lambs (Leviticus 1-9), then a deeper understanding of Isaiah 6:4 can be gained.
With those deeper associations of door posts and smoke in mind, Isaiah 6:4 shaking posts and the smoke-filled house seem to penetrate Isaiah past his human awareness, to a deep spiritual awareness of his inward parts. It is at that very significant moment, when Isaiah cries out in agony, “Woe is me! For I am undone,” that his sins are able to be purged and his iniquity removed. Isaiah has been given supernatural visions of the glorious Lord sitting upon His throne, with odd creatures with six wings standing over the throne; he is able to hear their praises to the Lord, he is able to recognize his Savior, and he is able to process everything that is going on. But, until the door posts are shaken, until the house fills with smoke, Isaiah is too contaminated by sin to fully participate in this supernatural event unfolding through his vision.
Isaiah 6:5-7 – “Who shall ascend into the hill of the LORD? Or who shall stand in his holy place?” asks the Psalmist in Psalm 24:3. Verse 4 answers it is “He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; Who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity, Nor sworn deceitfully.” It is apparent that Isaiah meets all of these requirements, or he would not be standing in the holy throne room of the Lord. Even though he was able to be present with the Lord, he suffers a dirtiness of unclean lips and he dwells in the midst of people of unclean lips. It is noteworthy, that Isaiah blames himself, not the people he dwells with that also suffer from this sinful condition; this accountability, most certainly is made possible through self-evaluation because of the purifying smoke that penetrates his being, and the powerful viewing with his own eyes the King, the Lord of hosts, that brings repentance and shame.
Isaiah 6:6 records the cleansing of Isaiah’s lips touched by a hot, fiery coal held by the tongs of one Seraph that sears the impurities, takes the iniquity away, and purges the sin. It is interesting that Isaiah speaks of two results to the touching of his lips with the hot coal to be “thine iniquity (עָוֹן - wrongdoing) is taken away” and “thy sin (חַטָּאָה - wickedness) purged.” Both the unholy action and the wicked result are purged from Isaiah by the fiery coal (רִצְפָּה – glowing coal). It is through the coals purification of Isaiah’s lips in this purging rite that gives him the right to speak and parallels Temple sacrifices for cleansing of sin.
Isaiah’s recognition of the Lord of hosts as his King connects the death of his human king to the very alive and powerfully reigning King of Kings. Any despair that Isaiah feels upon the death of King Uzziah has been replaced by the recognition of his awesome, glorious and eternal King and Lord that sits upon the throne of God.
Isaiah 6:8 – The call of God starts with a question that demands an answer, “Who shall I send, and who will go for us?” Isaiah’s purged, clean lips answers “Here am I; send me.” Then God commissions Isaiah as His mouthpiece, “Go, and tell this people.” The message that follows spoken by Isaiah, God’s messenger, with the words directed for him to say, will affect God’s People, both the Jews and later the Christians, from that point on as God warns of desolation to come upon His people as spiritual obduracy is placed upon them in punishment for their disobedience to Him.
Isaiah 6:9-10 – The Rabbinic interpretation of Isaiah 6:9-10 is preserved with the harsh words written in our Scripture; that it is preserved in this manner argues for “original meaning” exegesis. Unlike other text which carefully presents harsh ideas with softened words, Isaiah 6:9-10 fully holds its meaning and implication. Usually, Isaiah 6:10 is used by Rabbis to teach that there is a connection between understanding and repentance, and that the former governs the latter.
Frankly speaking, Isaiah is used by God to bring a hardening of Israel’s heart and cause their unbelief. The words he spoke to them reveal a great deal:
"Hear ye indeed, but understand not; And see ye indeed, but perceive not. Make the heart of this people fat, And make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; Lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, And understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed."
Judgment comes upon God’s people because of their disobedience and covenant disloyalty to Him. However, a connection to the worship of idols is noticed when Isaiah 6:9-10 are compared; both speak of the same condition of blindness and deafness, one upon people, and the other upon idols (Psalm 135:15-18):
The idols of the heathen are silver and gold, The work of men’s hands. They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not; They have ears, but they hear not; Neither is there any breath in their mouths. They that make them are like unto them: So is every one that trusteth in them.
When this connection to idols is considered, a strong case can be made that the punishment of Israel for their disobedience has stirred the jealous heart of the LORD God to the place He makes the punishment fit the specific crime that has brought Him such deep distress.
A connection to Christ’s explanation of why He speaks in parables with a direct reference to Isaiah (Matthew 13:11-17) also gives light to the purpose of spiritually deadening the hearts, blinding the eyes and dulling the ears:
Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given. 12 For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath. 13 Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand. 14 And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive: 15 For this people’s heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them. 16 But blessed are your eyes, for they see: and your ears, for they hear. 17 For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.
Christ’s teachings confirm Isaiah 6:9-10 that the closed eyes, dulled ears, and hardened hearts are deliberately forced upon God’s disobedient people in order to prevent them from understanding, choose conversion, and receive healing. He also confirms that Christ’s followers have both eyes that see and ears that can hear, a blessing that is graced by God in his choosing to give faith to those that follow His Son.
But, it is also important to note that the idea of a “remnant” of God’s people remaining with full eyesight and hearing, without hardened hearts, is possible if one considers that Isaiah maintains his vision and hearing after the disobedient receive God’s punishment. Isaiah was set apart from the people with the unclean lips; possibly there were others. This conclusion supports the many Jews that actually receive conversion after receiving the teachings of Christ. Also, this conclusion can be supported because Isaiah 6:9 shows God sends Isaiah to “Go, and tell this people” indicative of those with unclean lips that Isaiah dwells with; possibly an argument could be formed that indicates it is a group, not the entire people of God that receives this message.
Isaiah 6:11-12 – When the utter desolation described in verses Isaiah 6:11-12 is factored into this interpretation, it becomes apparent that a great deal of God’s people will be made blind and deaf from the eighth century B.C. if the land is to be prepared for the great forsaking.
For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have desired, And ye shall be confounded for the gardens that ye have chosen. For ye shall be as an oak whose leaf fadeth, And as a garden that hath no water. And the strong shall be as tow, And the maker of it as a spark, And they shall both burn together, and none shall quench them.
However, it should be noted that some argue that Isaiah 6:13 is a “midrashic” addition which entered into the Hebrew text between the earliest translation of Isaiah and the time of Origen. With this addition, Isaiah 6:13 seems to suggest that after the complete desolation and depopulation of the land, there will be a tenth that survives and subjected to further destruction. This argument can only be developed through the conditional clause inclusion (excluded from the KJV); with it inclusion, the definite destruction is prophesized to come to the tenth of God’s people that remain in the desolate land.
Isaiah 6 is filled with many applications for Christians. Isaiah’s dirtied lips show that when dwelling amongst others of sinfulness, the dirty condition is apt to come upon even the most devoted to God. The process of spiritual awareness and understanding is critical upon the eyes and ears and heart. These three senses are controlled by God; it is His grace that opens them for His spiritual message to be received. And it is God that closes these senses down to prevent the disobedient from receiving his teachings and grace. The Lord Jesus Christ is fully aware of this condition that is brought upon the disobedient, and patterns His teachings to His followers to give them new spiritual understanding without revealing the same to those God has brought obduracy upon. Even today, the condition of obduracy prevents Jewish interpreters from reaching the Christian understanding of prophecy in matters like contained in Isaiah 7:14 about the future virgin birth of Christ, and the prophecy Christ’s suffering in Isaiah 53.
Isaiah 6 is filled with deep spiritual teachings that provide believers with understanding of the holiness of God, His will for His People, and the desolation that disobedience to Him brings. Correct exegesis gives Christians a deep understanding of Scripture, especially in the areas of spiritual knowledge and understanding importance in the redemptive process that brings salvation.
The testimony and teachings of Christ are often unheeded; a definite observation of blinded eyes, dulled hearing, and hardened hearts can sometimes be seen of those that reject the message of Christ. Frankly, it seems a good waste of time and effort to witness to those under such a condition. If God has not opened the eyes to see, the ears to hear, and the heart to understand, then He has not graced them with faith. Without faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, salvation cannot be received. Redemption will never come to a person with such a spiritual desolation created by the condition of obduracy that is upon a person; if God has placed that spiritual deadening then no amount of witnessing of the Gospel of Jesus Christ will remove it.
In final analysis, Isaiah 6 gives Christians today both an understanding of the rejection of Christ by most Jews who remain blinded and deaf to God’s Truth. But, it also guides our own witnessing efforts, to recognize that though the Lord Jesus Christ came to offer salvation to mankind, it is fully dependent upon whether that Good News can be received. Isaiah 6 shows us that God is ultimately in control of that process. It is His grace, and His grace alone, that determines the giving of faith and understanding to a believer. With that faith valve turned on, eyes can see, ears can hear, and hearts can understand. But, those of disobedience, those that choose idols over God, and those that dwell among the immoral and participate in their activities will not have the ability to hear and receive Christ’s redemption; they will only be eligible to receive His judgment on that terrible and desolate day to come.
Beale, Gregory K. "Isaiah 6:9-13 : A Retributive Taunt against Idolatry." Vetus testamentum 41, no. 3 (1991): 257-278.
Beuken, W. A. M. "The Manifestation of Yahweh and the Commission of Isaiah: Isaiah 6 Read against the Background of Isaiah 1." Calvin Theological Journal 39, no. 1 (2004): 72-87.
Box, G. H. and S. R. Driver. The Book of Isaiah: Translated from a Text Revised in Accordance with the Results of Recent Criticism. New York: The Macmillan Co. , 1909.
Bright, John. A History of Israel. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1972.
Cate, Robert L. "We Need to Be Saved (Isaiah 1:1-20, 5:1-12, 6:1-13)." Review & Expositor 88, no. 2 (1991): 137-151.
Day, John. "Echoes of Baal's Seven Thunders and Lightnings in Psalm 29 and Habakkuk 3:9 and the Identity of the Seraphim in Isaiah 6." Vetus testamentum 29, no. 2 (1979): 143-151.
Easley, Kendell H. Revelation, Holman New Testament Commentary. Vol. 12. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998.
Evans, Craig A. "Isaiah 6:9-10 in Rabbinic and Patristic Writings." Vigiliae christianae 36, no. 3 (1982): 275-281.
________. "Isa 6:9-13 in the Context of Isaiah's Theology." Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29, no. 2 (1986): 139-146.
Gowan, Donald E. "Isaiah 6:1-8." Interpretation 45, no. 2 (1991): 172-176.
House, Paul R. "Isaiah's Call and Its Context in Isaiah 1-6." Criswell Theological Review 6, (1993): 207-222.
Iwry, Samuel. "Massēbāh and Bāmāh in 1q Isaiaha 6:13." Journal of Biblical Literature 76, no. 3 (1957): 225-232.
Liebreich, Leon J. "The Position of Chapter Six in the Book of Isaiah." Hebrew Union College Annual 25, (1954): 37-40.
Napier, B. D. Song of the Vineyard: A Guide through the Old Testament. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1982.
Oswalt, John. The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 1-39. NICOT; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986.
Strong, James. The New Strong's Expanded Exaustive Concordance of the Bible. Red-letter ed. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001.
Swanson, James. Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains: Greek (New Testament). Vol. 1997. electronic ed. Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997.
Watts, John D. W. Isaiah 1-33, Revised Edition, Word Biblical Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2005.
 B. D. Napier, Song of the Vineyard: A Guide through the Old Testament (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1982), 250.
 Leon J. Liebreich, "The Position of Chapter Six in the Book of Isaiah," Hebrew Union College Annual 25, (1954): 39.
 W. A. M. Beuken, "The Manifestation of Yahweh and the Commission of Isaiah: Isaiah 6 Read against the Background of Isaiah 1," Calvin Theological Journal 39, no. 1 (2004): 73.
 The text never claims Isaiah as author; but, early readers assigned authorship to him. Later, scholars questioned authorship because the historical data recorded in chapters 40-66 occurred after Isaiah’s death; but, they continue to attribute the first 39 chapters to Prophet Isaiah, son of Amoz. (John D. W. Watts, Isaiah 1-33, Revised Edition, Word Biblical Commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2005), xliii.)
 Ibid., xlii.
 Paul R. House, "Isaiah's Call and Its Context in Isaiah 1-6," Criswell Theological Review 6, (1993): 209.
 John Bright, A History of Israel, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1972), 254.
 House: 216.
 Donald E. Gowan, "Isaiah 6:1-8," Interpretation 45, no. 2 (1991): 173.
 G. H. and S. R. Driver Box, The Book of Isaiah: Translated from a Text Revised in Accordance with the Results of Recent Criticism (New York: The Macmillan Co. , 1909), 44.
 Watts, 103.
 Isaiah 1:1 shows Isaiah receiving the first vision to pronounce God’s Words to Judah and Jerusalem.
 House: 213.
 Ibid., 214.
 John Oswalt, The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 1-39 (NICOT; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986), 177.
 Robert L. Cate, "We Need to Be Saved (Isaiah 1:1-20, 5:1-12, 6:1-13)," Review & Expositor 88, no. 2 (1991): 146.
 Isaiah’s sermons against the evil-doers compare unified to prophesy spoken by Amos (1:4, 5, 23; cf. Amos 2:6; 5:10, 11).
 House: 210.
 Beuken: 74.
 James Strong, The New Strong's Expanded Exaustive Concordance of the Bible, Red-letter ed. (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001), H7311.
 Ibid., H5375.
 John Day, "Echoes of Baal's Seven Thunders and Lightnings in Psalm 29 and Habakkuk 3:9 and the Identity of the Seraphim in Isaiah 6," Vetus testamentum 29, no. 2 (1979): 149.
 Ibid., 150.
 Ibid., 143.
 Kendell H. Easley, Revelation, Holman New Testament Commentary, vol. 12 (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998), 149-150.
 James Swanson, Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains: Greek (New Testament), electronic ed., vol. 1997 (Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), H5771.
 Ibid., H2403.
 Ibid., H7531.
 The Hebrew word for glowing coal is used only once in Scriptures; thus, the general action of purging can be noted; but, there is no reliable typology that should be construed since a pattern cannot be established.
 Watts, 108.
 Craig A. Evans, "Isaiah 6:9-10 in Rabbinic and Patristic Writings," Vigiliae christianae 36, no. 3 (1982): 275.
 Ibid., 276.
 Gregory K. Beale, "Isaiah 6:9-13 : A Retributive Taunt against Idolatry," Vetus testamentum 41, no. 3 (1991): 258.
 Craig A. Evans, "Isa 6:9-13 in the Context of Isaiah's Theology," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29, no. 2 (1986): 141.
 Trees in Scripture are often typological representations of different spiritual lives assumed by humans. For the purposes and length requirements of this paper, discussion of this connection of oak trees to Israel, and the general idea that their choice of idols will fade their fervor for the LORD God and dry up His waters of grace that have in the past to quench their thirst, will suffice.
 Beale: 259.
 Samuel Iwry, "Massēbāh and Bāmāh in 1q Isaiaha 6:13," Journal of Biblical Literature 76, no. 3 (1957): 226.
 Ibid., 225.
 Watts, l.