Friday, 10 July 2020, 6:49 PM
Site: Becker Bible Teacher Resources
Course: Becker Bible Teacher Resources (Scholar)
Glossary: Main Glossary


Society form after it evolves into the highest civilization according to Herbert Spencer.

Clay Inscriptions

Writings upon clay found in archaeological digs are usually associated with diplomatic communications and royal archives. They were also used for general purposes (inventories, economic record-keeping) because they were inexpensive and durable writing material.

Climacus, John

(John of the Ladder) was a popular writer of the early seventh century; today his work is read every Lent in Orthodox monasteries, which makes him one of the most read spiritual writers of the church. In his Ladder of Perfection, he described a progression from an active life to a contemplative one as a ladder to be climbed to God, by eradicating vice and adopting virtue, a slow process made easier as one grows closer to Him.

Cluniac Movement

The founding of a new monastery at Cluny by William 'the Pious, duke of Aquitaine. The movement grew and popular communities were scattered throughout France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. The movement was established upon the Benedictine Rule (See Rule of St. Benedict), and the Cluny monks were encouraged to develop a personal spirituality, engage in common worship and work in manual labor.


A book made with pages stitched together. Codices can be written on both sides of the page. Early Christians often used these as the Jews continued the use of scrolls; probably because after they moved from easily rolled parchment made of animal skins to the more difficult-to-roll papyrus.

Codex Sinaiticus

The oldest complete copy of the New Testament in existence, on display at the British Library in London.

Codex Vaticanus

Slightly older that the Codex Sinaiticus, but incomplete; it contains most of the Old Testament, but is missing some of the New. It is held by the Vatican in Rome.

Cognate Languages

Languages having affinities with the Biblical languages.


A decision to embrace an obligation or effort whose principles or beliefs are based upon emotions, mind, and will (See Ethics)

Comte, Auguste

(19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) The founder of Sociology, Comte was a French philosopher whose doctrine focused upon "Positivism." Positivism was the idea of applying scientific method to the social world to change social principals and reform to make society a better place to live.