Main Glossary

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Council of Constantinople (First)

(Second Ecumenical Council) Called by Emperor Theodosius I in 381. The council declared the Trinitarian doctrine of the equality of Father, Son and Holy Spirit as expressed by the Nicene Creed.

Council of Constantinople (Fourth, Eastern Orthodox)

(Eighth Ecumenical Council) Restored Photius to the See of Constantinople and condemned the double-procession doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit in 879-880. (This council is accepted by the Eastern Orthodox Church but not regarded as Ecumenical by the Roman Catholic Church.)

Council of Constantinople (Fourth, Roman Catholic)

(Eighth Ecumenical Council) Fourth Council of Constantinople was called by Emperor Basil I in 869-870, to excommunicate St. Photius, resulting in increased animosity between the Western and Eastern churches. It deposed Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople and reinstated St. Ignatius. (This council is accepted by the Roman Catholic Church but rejected as a robber council by the Eastern Orthodox Church.)

Council of Constantinople (Second)

(Fifth Ecumenical Council) Second Council of Constantinople was called by Emperor Justinian I in 553. The council endorsed the edict of Justinian's, lending support to Monophysitism, which diminished the earlier Council of Chalcedon. It repudiated the Three Chapters as Nestorian, condemned Origen of Alexandria, and decreed Theopaschite Formula.

Council of Constantinople (Third)

(Sixth Ecumenical Council) Third Council of Constantinople was called by Emperor Constantine IV Pogonatus in 680. The council condemned Monotheletism and Monoenergism and endorsed the view of Maximus that Christ had two wills, one human and one divine, acting in perfect accord.

Council of Ephesus (First)

(Third Ecumenical Council) Repudiated Nestorianism and Pelagianism, proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos ("God-bearer"), and reaffirmed the Nicene Creed in the year 431.

Council of Ephesus (Second)

(Not and Ecumenical Council) Declared Eutyches orthodox and attacked his opponents. Originally convened as an Ecumenical council in 449, it is not recognized as such, and is actually denounced as a "Robber Council" by the Chalcedonians (Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Protestants)

Council of Lateran (Fourth)

The Fourth Council of the Lateran (1215) (Ecumenical Council) handled issues related to transubstantiation, papal primacy, and conduct of clergy. Established norm expectations that Jews and Muslims should wear a special dress to enable them to be distinguished from Christians.

Council of Nicea (First)

(First Ecumenical Council) First church council was called by Emperor Constantine in 325, to decide the nature of Jesus. The council ruled that Jesus was both human and divine, and that he was equivalent to the same substance as God the Father. Arianism was made a heresy by their decision, and the Nicene Creed encapsulated this theological doctrine.

Council of Nicea (Second)

(Seventh Ecumenical Council) Restored the veneration of icons which had been condemned at the Council of Hieria, 754, and repudiated iconoclasm. (This council is rejected by some Protestant denominations, which condemned the veneration of icons)

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