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When ecumenical councils deal with mattersĀ  that regard organizaitonal, disciplinary, or procedural matters, they are called "canons."

When ecumenical councils deal with matters of faith, the resulting edicts are known as "symbols" or "dogmas." 1

1Ferguson, Everett. Church History Volume One: From Christ to Pre-Reformation. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005, 211.

Carthusian Movement

A monastery founded by priest and scholar Bruno in 1084 in the Alps called Chartreuse led to the movement that became part of the unofficial conscience of the church. Rather than based upon the Rule of St. Benedict, Bruno's group focused upon duplicating the early desert fathers with smaller communities, solitary contemplation and work. It blended the old ideal of hermitage with the medieval institution of the communal monastery, and became respected for its severe approach to a life of solitude for dedicated monks. (Hill, 189)


Hill, Jonathan. Zondervan Handbook to the History of Christianity. Oxford: Lion Publishing, 2006.


Theology set within a scheme of questions and answers.


The whole body of Christians

Celestial Hierarchy

A corpus within the Dionysian writings which presents the angelic hierarchy in three triads of seraphim, cherubim and thrones; dominions, powers and authorities; principalities, archangels and angels.


The altar of a church that is usually an enclosed space for use by clergy and other officials


The Priest in charge of a Roman Catholic chancery; also, the chief administrative officer in certain American Universities.


A Department of the Curia Romania of the Roman Catholic Church that is responsible for issuing bulls to establish new benefices, dioceses, etc.


Confirmation of Byzantine era babies after their baptism, through the anointing of oil (chrism).

Cistercian Movement

A movement in Citeaux that grew out of the Cluny Movement, required monks to live under a strict interpretation of the Rule of St. Benedict, seclude themselves from the temptations of the world, reject donations from wealthy patrons, and work with hands to support themselves. Private property was banned, and ownership was held by the community. Cistercian monks were the wearers of white robes; thus, they were known as the 'white monks' (Hill, 191). (See Bernard of Clairvaux)


Hill, Jonathan. Zondervan Handbook to the History of Christianity. Oxford: Lion Publishing, 2006.

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