Main Glossary


Words matter! Know the meanings of the words you speak, write, preach and teach to perfectly accomplish the things the LORD God wills.

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ARCHAEOLOGY (CULTURES)

Archaeology

A branch of historical research that seeks to reveal the past by a systematic recovery of its surviving remains.


Asceticism

The severe practice of self-discipline and the abstention of indulgencies like sexual activity and diet often seen in monastic religious communities that withdraw from society.


Autograph

Original texts of the Bible.


Axumite Empire

Northeastern Africa trading nation growing from the proto-Axumite period ca. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. Legend speaks of the founder of the Axumite Empire in Ethiopia to be Manelik, rumored son of Queen Sheba and King Solomon. The Axumite possessed the largest navy on earth at one time, and were the only African civilization south of Egypt to develop writing. Their tribal language was Ge'ez, and they also spoke Greek. The Axumite had close links with the ancient Israelites, and were Jews themselves, although their religion was based solely upon the Torah and not the Pharisaic Judaism that was the norm in the Middle East and Europe. The lost Ark of the Covenant is rumored to have been stored by Manelik in the Ethiopian highlands for safekeeping.1

Reference:

1 Hill, Jonathan. "Early Christianity: A World Religion." Handbook to the History of Christianity. Zondervan, 2006, 106.

Biblical Archaeology

A branch of archaeology which began in the 19th century that seeks to reveal the historical setting and material culture of the peoples and lands of the Bible; it is the science of excavation, decipherment, and critical evaluation of ancient material records related to the Bible. Biblical Archaeology can assist in understanding of the original context of the Bible so that the theological truth will not be misinterpreted or misapplied. Its proper use confirms the Word of the Bible, corrects the Wording of the Bible, clarifies the World of the Bible, and complements the Witness of the Bible.1

Reference:

1 Price, Randall. The Stones Cry Out: What Archaeology Reveals About the Truth of the Bible. Eugene, Oregon: Harvest House, 1997.


Biblical Inscriptions

Past written remains of words written in Biblical languages and cognate languages have affirmed the integrity of the received authoritative texts of the Bible. They help scholars understand the peculiarities of poetic sections and better interpret words that appear only once.

Biblical Maximalist Archaeologist

Biblical Maximalists approach their interpretations that the Bible contributes significantly to our understanding of the history of Palestine. They use reason and science in the same way as Biblical Minimalists to carefully analyze their research of the extremely limited information. However, when it comes time for interpretation of their findings by ordering and analyzing the evidence, they hold the Bible to be the ultimate foundation for drawing conclusions. The Bible is the Manuscript Evidence that has sustained its surety over time. It is supported by witness testimony; because of its reliability and proven record of historical accounts the Bible has priority in interpretation. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence to the Biblical Maximalist, and the Word of God stands as the primary source which all other conclusions are based.

Biblical Minimalist Archaeologist

Biblical Minimalists approach their interpretations of archaeological evidence with the idea that the Bible contributes little or not at all to our understanding of the history of Palestine before 500 B.C. (before the return from exile). They are unable to connect the Bible with their findings in a relevant way, and when they do interpret Biblical artifacts that connect with that Truth of the Word of God, they are more likely to take a contradictory or confrontational approach.

Byzantine Empire

A Christian civilization founded by Constantine the Great in AD 330 with the new city of Constantinople (New Rome). Upon the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453, the Byzantine Empire came to an end. The Christian bastion with Emperors presiding over civil and religious life, and the near-perfect union of the church and state, endured for 1,123 years and 18 days.

Chrismation

Confirmation of Byzantine era babies after their baptism, through the anointing of oil (chrism).


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