Main Glossary

Words matter! Know the meanings of the words you speak, write, preach and teach to perfectly accomplish the things the LORD God wills.

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Cistercian Movement

A movement in Citeaux that grew out of the Cluny Movement, required monks to live under a strict interpretation of the Rule of St. Benedict, seclude themselves from the temptations of the world, reject donations from wealthy patrons, and work with hands to support themselves. Private property was banned, and ownership was held by the community. Cistercian monks were the wearers of white robes; thus, they were known as the 'white monks' (Hill, 191). (See Bernard of Clairvaux)


Hill, Jonathan. Zondervan Handbook to the History of Christianity. Oxford: Lion Publishing, 2006.
Entry link: Cistercian Movement

Clay Inscriptions

Writings upon clay found in archaeological digs are usually associated with diplomatic communications and royal archives. They were also used for general purposes (inventories, economic record-keeping) because they were inexpensive and durable writing material.
Entry link: Clay Inscriptions

Cognate Languages

Languages having affinities with the Biblical languages.
Entry link: Cognate Languages


A social or religious group with unique beliefs, a deviation of social standards, fighting against conformance, and under the control of individual(s) who use their power to dictate belief and activities of others. A religious cult sect has a false or inadequate basis for salvation, and a false expression of authority.
Entry link: Cult


Original meaning to "cultivate the ground," has expanded to include the worldview of a particular group's behavior that is learned and transmitted by symbols consisting of rites, artifacts, language, etc. Culture formation includes the creation, cultivation, and consumption of spiritual or secular works by human beings in an intimate ordering, forming, interpreting, and reshaping of the world they live in together as they share the artifacts of their association.

Entry link: Culture

Culture Circles

3 - Trusted small group of people that you trust and can share  values, needs, talents, goals, and dreams.

12 - Larger small group that have skills, talents, and possessions that will readily help the small group's goals

120 - Waiting to join and be compelled to give time, energy, and resources

Culture Circles exist in all areas of life.  Small or big changes depend upon the 3, 12, 120 rule, whether recognized as such or not. Though the numbers do not need to be exact, the frequency of these predictable numbers guarantee potential change in some realm of the culture of 3's circle of life.

Entry link: Culture Circles


Earliest known writing that is engraved on interconnected clay wedges
Entry link: Cuneiform


A student or interpreter of archaeological inscriptions
Entry link: Epigrapher


A Jewish social-religious sect whose members, like the Sadducees, considered themselves to be the true descendants of Sadok, the high priest of Solomon. They rejected the temple priests as corrupt; only priests affiliated with their sect were deemed pure. Founded by a man they refer to as the "Teacher of Righteousness," they established a semi-monastic community near the Dead Sea. In 1947, leather scrolls sealed in hermetically sealed jars, in the Essene community of Qumran were discovered by a shepherd boy. The Wady Qumran Manuscripts, known as the "Dead Sea Scrolls", dated between c. 200 B.C. and A.D. 66-70, contain the oldest extant Hebrew manuscripts as well as documents unique to the Essene sect. The Essenes belief in the immediate coming of God's Kingdom was connected to their confidence in the physical resurrection of the body. They were preoccupied with the end-of-days, the nearness of God and the need for repentance. The Essenes thought they were the first generation of God's people, preparing to meet the prophesized Jewish Messiah in their lifetime.
Entry link: Essnes

Genizah Room

A lumber room of the Synagogue where the worn or damaged manuscripts of the Bible are traditionally stored
Entry link: Genizah Room

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