Main Glossary

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A movement of Jews which believed in the Lord Jesus Christ until the fourth century; however, they regarded Jesus Christ as simply a human being and nothing more. They believed that Jesus replaced the sacrifice in the Temple, with the requirement to obey the law through his teachings. They regarded Paul and the Gentile form of Christianity as a heretical movement. The Jewish Christian movement existed around Jerusalem and perhaps Persia; to Christians, they were considered a minor, heretical sect. (Hill, 64)


Hill, Jonathan. Zondervan Handbook to the History of Christianity. Oxford: Lion Publishing, 2006.
Entry link: Ebionism


A person in a religious order.
Entry link: Ecclesiastic

Edict of Milan

Issued by Constantine and his eastern co-ruler, Licinius, the Edict of Milan officially ended all persecution and allowed freedom of religion throughout the Roman Empire.

Entry link: Edict of Milan

Education (Christian)

"The deliberate, systematic, and sustained divine and human effort to share or appropriate the knowledge, values, attitudes, skills, sensitivities, and behaviors that comprise or are consistent with the Christian faith.  It fosters the change, renewal, and reformation of persons, groups, and structures by the power of the Holy Spirit to conform to the revealed will of God as expressed in the Old and New Testaments and preeminently in the person of Jesus Christ, as well as any outcomes of that effort."1

1 Robert W. Pazmino, Foundational Issues in Christian Education, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987), p. 87.

Entry link: Education (Christian)


A student or interpreter of archaeological inscriptions
Entry link: Epigrapher


A Jewish social-religious sect whose members, like the Sadducees, considered themselves to be the true descendants of Sadok, the high priest of Solomon. They rejected the temple priests as corrupt; only priests affiliated with their sect were deemed pure. Founded by a man they refer to as the "Teacher of Righteousness," they established a semi-monastic community near the Dead Sea. In 1947, leather scrolls sealed in hermetically sealed jars, in the Essene community of Qumran were discovered by a shepherd boy. The Wady Qumran Manuscripts, known as the "Dead Sea Scrolls", dated between c. 200 B.C. and A.D. 66-70, contain the oldest extant Hebrew manuscripts as well as documents unique to the Essene sect. The Essenes belief in the immediate coming of God's Kingdom was connected to their confidence in the physical resurrection of the body. They were preoccupied with the end-of-days, the nearness of God and the need for repentance. The Essenes thought they were the first generation of God's people, preparing to meet the prophesized Jewish Messiah in their lifetime.
Entry link: Essnes


The reality that one can begin at any given point and go outward and yet never arrive. (Contrast - Infinity)
Entry link: Eternity


The principles of right and wrong that guide moral duty, obligation, and decision making.

Ethic levels range from smallest to largest strength order.The stronger the level for the basis of ethics, the more effective and true the ethics become:

1) Idea - An attractive thought, concept, or theory that is uniquely novel to the thinker

2) Opinion - An estimation, judgment, or idea that is tied to emotions

3) Belief - A faith, strong inclination, or principle that is based upon thoughtful reflection without emotional weight

4) Commitment - A decision to embrace an obligation or effort whose principles or beliefs are based upon emotions, mind, and will

5) Conviction - Strong beliefs that create solid choices of thought and action that one would be willing, if necessary, to die for

6) Spiritual Conviction - Ethics that do not change and are based upon a foundation that is beyond the personal preferences of an individual. The Word of God is the only foundation of Truth that true spiritual conviction is based.
Entry link: Ethics

Ethiopian Jews

The Axumite Jewish empire in Ethiopia was started by Manelik, storied son King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, according to an ancient myth. The Jewish Axumites say that when Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt, some of them had gone south instead of east, claiming Ethiopia to be the holy land of God. Pharisaic Judaism did not reach Ethiopia, so the Jewish religion was based solely on the Torah and never developed a rabbinical law. Legend speaks of the hiding of the Ark of the Covenant, which, which was thought that Solomon had given to Manelik for safekeeping on the shores of Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile (Hill, 106). (See Manelik)


Hill, Jonathan. Zondervan Handbook to the History of Christianity. Oxford: Lion Publishing, 2006.

Entry link: Ethiopian Jews


The sacrament of the Lord Jesus Christ's last supper commemorated in Christian ceremony.
Entry link: Eucharist

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