Main Glossary

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Genizah Room

A lumber room of the Synagogue where the worn or damaged manuscripts of the Bible are traditionally stored
Entry link: Genizah Room


A deep bow to one or both knees is a sign of devotion to the presence of the Blessed Sacrament. Genuflection is also done at the mention of the incarnation by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary within the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church, and in the churches of the Anglican Communion.
Entry link: Genuflection


Monophysite Christians, originally from the southern Arabian peninsula that carved out an important kingdom in the desert east of the River Jordan, in what is now modern-day Syria, Palestine and Jordan. They were significant in Middle Eastern politics, however, their ruling phylarch governed only by permission of the Byzantine emperor (Hill, 102).


Hill, Jonathan. "Early Christianity: A World Religion." Handbook to the History of Christianity. Zondervan, 2006.
Entry link: Ghassanid


Glorification is the culmination of salvation and is the final blessed and abiding state of the redeemed.

Salvation Phases:

Justification - Past (Phase 1) I Have Been Saved from the penalty of sin (FREE) (Christian)

Sanctification - Present (Phase 2) I Am Being Saved from the power of sin (Costly) (Disciple)

Glorification - Future (Phase 3) I Will Be Saved from the presence of sin (Face-to-Face) (Glorified Bodies)
Entry link: Glorification


Speaking in Tongues is stirred by the Holy Spirit in private prayer, and public praise and prayer when an interpreter is present.  The physiology of glossolalia is the stimulation of "Broca's area", the center for articulate speech in the third frontal convolution of the dominant cerebral hemisphere. First occurrance is recorded in Acts 2, on the day of Pentecost.

Entry link: Glossolalia


Gnosticism was a secret religion with esoteric knowledge, which was influenced by the mystery religions in the early days of early Christian belief. The Gnostics were a host of different movements with similar ideas; some existed in the midst of 'mainstream' Christianity and others were followers of non-Christian religions. They were the biggest and most controversial movement within Christianity at the time of the early church.

Dualism, belief in two principles of good and evil which are intrinsically opposed, was common to all Gnostics. This dualism was expressed in the evil physical world and the good spiritual world. To explain evil, some imagined weaker gods, while others developed elaborate mythology to explain its existence. Ireaeus, a late second-century Christian from Anatolia, wrote a book attacking the religion, which led to the development of the standards of Orthodoxy. (Hill, 65,66)


Hill, Jonathan. "Early Christianity: A World Religion." Handbook to the History of Christianity. Zondervan, 2006.
Entry link: Gnosticism

God, Attributes of

The LORD God's attributes are the essential qualities that belong to Him.  His being or substance unites the multiple attributes in one entity.

Metaphysical: God self-exists, and is eternal and unchanging.

Intellectual: God is faithful, omniscient, and wise.

Ethical: God is just, merciful, and loving

Emotional: God hates evil, is compassionate and long-suffering

Existential: God is free, omnipotent, and authentic.

God is immanent in unversal providential and redemptive activity with His transcendent being.


Different Theological Classifications:

Strong - Absolute and Immanent

Berkhof - Incommunicable or communicable

Gill - Metaphysical or moral

Wiley - Absolute, relative, and moral

Chafer - Personal and constitutional

Entry link: God, Attributes of

Gospel of John, Historical Interpretation

The gnostic influence triggered a response in Irenaeus and Tatianus to defend the historical nature of the Book of John, to remove the heretical connections brought forth. The defense of Scripture against the control of the Gnostic believers was a critical point in Christian history; so these authors become important to begin the process of winnowing the Truth of God from the heretics.

Origen's writings on the Book of John in the 3rd century infused the life, spirit and history of Christ through the Book of John.That infusion encouraged scholars to approach the Book of John not only historically, but spiritually as well, though refuting the Gnostic ideas.

Augustine's insistence that the historical life of Jesus, along with great theological concepts, and spiritual depth were an important consideration to the reading of the Fourth Gospel. This develops ideas of spiritual connections, but links them to the historical dating that is so available to interpreters through the Book of John. Augustin leads the early Church into their surety of belief that the Book of John is a historical compilation of the life of Christ.

B. F. Westcott's defense of the apostolic origins of the Book of John allows readers to directly connect the disciple's writings to Christ. Apostolic authority elevates the Book of John to the highest level of consideration and makes it crucial to base new theological ideas upon. Bultmann's demythologizing approach gave further insight in the life of Christ with a theological paradigm.[1]

Polycarp's words about how he witnessed John as he witnessed Christ, down to his appearance, words, discourse, and nature are profound.[2]He speaks of his devotion to John and his recollection as the one Christ loved the most amongst His disciples with a connection of proximity and authority to Him as John stood, walked, witnessed, loved, and cried in the presence the Lord.
[1] Leo Percer, "Nbst615, Lecture #2: Introduction to John - Interpretations of the Fourth Gospel,"  (accessed 1/15/2015).

 [2] D.A. Carson, The Gospel According to John (Grand Rapids, MI; Cambridge, UK: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1991), 26.
Entry link: Gospel of John, Historical Interpretation


The unmerited, unearned favor of the LORD God, given to the elect for His purposes, according to which He regenerates, justifies, sanctifies, and glorifies sinners. It is the glorious display of God's sovereign goodness, and is infinitely wise, holy, and unchangeable. All true believers endure to the end. Those whom God has accepted in Christ, and sanctified by His Spirit, will never fall away from the state of grace, but shall persevere to the end. Believers may fall into sin through neglect and temptation, whereby they grieve the Spirit, impair their graces and comforts, and bring reproach on the cause of Christ and temporal judgments on themselves; yet they shall be kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation.

Sufficient Grace is adequate from here to eternity which flows from God to believers through Christ.

Irresistible Grace is the grace of God that cannot be rejected.

Efficacious Grace is grace that effects the purpose for which it is given by God; what he purposes, He will.

Prevenient Grace precedes all human decision and begins with God who gives to those He chooses.

Special Grace is favor God gives to redeem, sanctify, glorify His people in only His elect who have faith in Christ.

Entry link: Grace


The official language of the Roman world in the time of Jesus Christ
Entry link: Greek

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