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Unskilled and untrained to the accepted standards of one's profession
Entry link: Jack-leg


A non-Mormon living amicably among active Mormons. 2. A Mormon who is not active in the church or is not adhering to the principles of Mormon belief and lifestyle.

Entry link: Jack-Mormon

Jacob's Ladder

The ladder which reached from earth to Heaven that was seen by Jacob in a dream (Gen 28:12)
Entry link: Jacob's Ladder


A member of the Syrian Monotheistic church, which was governed by the patriarch of Antioch in the 6th century A.D.
Entry link: Jacobite

Jesus Christ

Jesus Christ is the eternal Son of God who was expressed by His Word and begotten before the creation of the World. In His incarnation as Jesus Christ He was conceived of the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary and walked this earth in human form with the nature of man from 4 B.C. - c. A.D. 29. Jesus perfectly revealed and did the Will of God, taking upon Himself common human nature but without sin. He honored the LORD God's divine law by His personal obedience, and in His substitutionary death on the cross, He became the redeemer of of men from their sin. He was raised from the dead with a glorified body through his Resurrection and appeared to His disciples and others. He ascended into Heaven and is now seated at the right hand of God, with the nature of God within him. He is the One Mediator which effects the reconciliation between the LORD God and His people. He will return in power and glory to judge the world and to usher in a new life to come in the Kingdom of God with a new Heaven and Earth.
Entry link: Jesus Christ

John, the Disciple whom Jesus Loved

John 13:21-23 the disciple "whom Jesus loved” leaned upon Christ's bosom at the Passover meal.  Peter and Judas Iscariot speak also during this account, precluding them from being the disciple of whom Jesus loved.

John 13-16 -Philip, Peter, Thomas, Judas Iscariot, or Judas the son of James cannot be "the beloved disciple” because they are mentioned alongside him in the three chapters.  Also, John 21:12 confirms that the beloved disciple is not Peter, Thomas, or Nathanael.

John 15:26-27 - Jesus speaks to his disciples about the coming Spirit of Truth that will bear witness, and lead to them bearing witness.  The actual Disciples' writings connects these witnesses to verify the apostolic authority that was granted the four Gospels by the early church.

John 19:26-27 - Jesus chooses "the disciple standing by, whom he loved” to care for his mother at His crucifixion

John 19:35 - Declares the direct witness of Christ by the author who has been there from the beginning; this precludes the "community” approach  to assigning authorship.

John 21:21-23 - Peter sees the disciple that Jesus loved following them, and identified him as the same one that leaned on his breast at the Passover supper.  This reference comes just before the confirmation of the writings by the disciple. Its positioning also suggests a connection between Peter's eyewitness testimonies as a major source towards John's Gospel.   It does preclude Peter from the authorship of the Book of John.

John 21:24-25 confirms the author of the Book of John as a disciple that is testifying of the things of Christ.

Further, when the Synoptic Gospels are compared, authorship can be narrowed down to Matthew, Simon the Zealot, James the son of Alpheus, or John the son of Zebedee. Because Peter is linked closely with John, and took part in the Resurrection search of the tomb, it is likely that the beloved disciple is part of the inner three (Peter, James, and John) that are closest to Jesus.  Since both Peter and James are named in the Book of John, it seems likely that the author is John with this circumstantial, but compelling clue.

The earliest external witness and declaration that John, son of Zebedee, wrote the Book of John comes from Irenaeus, a student of John's disciple Polycarp.  It was the traditional view of the early church for Johanean authorship, as indicated by their external writings up until the 18th century.  There is no piece of internal or external evidence that is inconsistent with naming John, the son of Zebedee as author of the Book of John.  

John, the beloved disciple of Jesus Christ, was given a unique position as witness to his ministry from the beginning.  His witness required his lifetime attention.  Unlike all other disciples, John grew old, and eventually found his way to the Island of Patmos to write the Book of Revelation.  He was not martyred quickly like all of the other original Disciples. Jesus chose one Disciple to witness not only his ministry but the arrival of the Holy Spirit, and the works of the early church in order for continuity of the message of Christ to be solidly founded and make it possible to introduce theological and typological connections that would be expounded on generations later.  Like the one survivor of a plane accident, John was that disciple with the responsibility to witness it and write it as directed by God.  The Book of John, and all of the writings of John, would be watered down, and incomprehensible if it were not written by him, the witness to all things that led to the establishment of the Christian Church.

Entry link: John, the Disciple whom Jesus Loved


To have and enjoy what is loved1 (See Desire, Fear, Sadness)




Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, The City of God, trans., Marcus Dods, Modern Library Paperback ed. (New York: Random House, Inc., 2000), 449.

Entry link: Joy


The monotheistic religion of the Jewish people, developed among the ancient Hebrews which believed in one transcendent LORD God who was revealed through Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets. Abraham was the father of Judaism, which combines the Jewish religion, culture and people, as worshipers of the One True JEHOVAH God. He was a wandering Aramean, and went down into Egypt to live as a foreigner, with only a few people. His descendants became a great nation, mighty and populous. The Egyptians treated them harshly with affliction and imposition of hard labor. They cried to the LORD God of their ancestors; the Lord heard the voices of His chosen people, and saw their affliction, their toll and their oppression. The LORD God brought them out of Egypt with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm, with a terrifying display of power, and with signs and wonders. The LORD God brought them into the Promised Land that flowed with milk and honey, which a part later became the nation of Israel. (Deu 26:5-9)

Entry link: Judaism

Judaism/Christianity Paradigms

Three Paradigms [1]

1. Better Faith Paradigm - Church triumphant, synagogue defeated.  The Eucharist made preeminent over the Law of Moses. Christians have spiritual ability to see with freedom and confidence vs. the Jew's spiritual blindness leading to misery and shame.

2. Mother-Daughter Paradigm - Judaism is the mother and Christianity her daughter.  Relies upon the idea that the Old Testament is Jewish and the New Testament Christian. Since the Old Testament predates the New Testament, it is concluded by these adherents that Judaism predated Pentecost Christianity. Christianity is said to descend from Judaism since Jesus and the early Christians were Jews.

3. Siblings Paradigm - Relatively new paradigm does not relate Judaism to be equal to the Old Testament or Christianity to be New Testament. The Mother was not Judaism, but rather, the Ancient Faith of Israel.  The Mother did not have only one child, she had many. Each child interpreted and practiced the ancient faith of Israel differently; only some survived the destruction of Jerusalem Temple and exile from the Land of Israel.

(The Ancient Faith of Israel consisted of non-Jerusalem Temple Jewish Movement, Samaritan Israelites, Hellenistic Judaism, Jewish Jesus Movement, Sadducees/Herodians, Historic Christianity, Pharisaic movement, Essene Judaism, Militant Judaism, People of the Land, Qumranic Judaism, and Unknown types). The two major surviving siblings that retained and increased their religious/cultural force from the Ancient Faith of Israel were Judaism (Proto-Rabbinical) and Christianity (Non-Jewish). Though Samaritans and Christian Jews also survived, they eventually lost their influence as specific groups in comparison with Judaism and Christianity.

Dr. Lizorkin-Eyzenberg claims Christianity is actually older as it developed through the Ancient Faith of Israel, than is Rabbinic Judaism, when the foundational document dating is recognized.  Historically, Christianity was recorded in the New Testament in the late 1st Century.  Judaism's foundational document is identified as the Mishna; it was published in the early 3rd century.


1Traditional Paradigms Reconsidered in an ETeacher Biblical course by Dr. Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg, 2014,at

Entry link: Judaism/Christianity Paradigms


The LORD God's gracious and full acquittal based upon principles of His righteousness of all sinners who repent and believe in Christ. Justification brings the believer unto a relationship of peace and favor with God.

Salvation Phases:

Justification - Past (Phase 1) I Have Been Saved from the penalty of sin (FREE) (Christian)

Sanctification - Present (Phase 2) I Am Being Saved from the power of sin (Costly) (Disciple)

Glorification - Future (Phase 3) I Will Be Saved from the presence of sin (Face-to-Face) (Glorified Bodies)
Entry link: Justification

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